Dr inż. Robert Cichowicz

 

Dr inż. Robert Cichowicz

Stanowisko: Adiunkt

Pokój: 101

Telefon: 42 631 20 20

E-Mail:  Ten adres pocztowy jest chroniony przed spamowaniem. Aby go zobaczyć, konieczne jest włączenie obsługi JavaScript.

 

 

Wykształcenie:

Stopnie i tytuły:

  • dyplom mgr inż. mechanika (1999) – w specjalności: „Maszyny, Systemy i Urządzenia Energetyczne” obroniony na Wydziale Mechanicznym Politechniki Łódzkiej;
  • dyplom inż. budownictwa (2004) – w specjalności: „Zarządzanie w budownictwie” obroniony na Wydziale Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej;
  • stopień naukowy doktora  nauk technicznych (2005) w dziedzinie „Budowa i Eksploatacja Maszyn” obroniony na Wydziale Mechanicznym Politechniki Łódzkiej;
  • ukończone szkolenie dotyczące „Komercjalizacji Nauk Innowacyjnych” (2010);
  • dyplom managera budownictwa energooszczędnego (2012);
  • ukończone studia podyplomowe z „Zarządzania projektem badawczym i komercjalizacji wyników badań” (2013);
  • ukończony kurs „Certyfikowany Europejski Projektant/Doradca Budownictwa Pasywnego” (2013);
  • dyplom mgr inż. inżynierii środowiska (2015) obroniony na Wydziale Inżynierii Procesowej i Ochrony Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej. 

Od roku 2000 zatrudniony najpierw w Katedrze Techniki Ogrzewczej i Wentylacyjnej, a obecnie w Instytucie Inżynierii Środowiska i Instalacji Budowlanych Politechniki Łódzkiej.

 

Od 11.2018 roku Ekspert Narodowego Centrum Badań i Rozwoju (NCBR) w Programie Operacyjnym Inteligentny Rozwój 2014-2020 (POIR).

Od 02.2018 roku Wydziałowy Ekspert ds. Internacjonalizacji na Wydziale Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej.

Od 11.2016 roku Pełnomocnik Dziekana ds. Aktywnych Metod Nauczania na Wydziale Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej.

Od 09.2015 roku Koordynator Projektu Zespołowego (realizowanego jako Problem Based Learning - PBL) dla kierunku inżynieria środowiska na Wydziale Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej.

Od 10.2006 roku Wydziałowy Koordynator programu Eramus+ (wcześniej LLP Erasmus) dla kierunku inżynieria środowiska na Wydziale Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej.

Od 02.2000 roku Opiekun Koła Naukowego "Wentylator" działającego najpierw przy Katedrze Techniki Ogrzewczej i Wentylacyjnej Politechniki Łódzkiej, a od 2013 przy Instytucie Inżynierii Środowiska i Instalacji Budowlanych Politechniki Łódzkiej.

 

Realizowane lub zakończone projekty badawcze:

  • W 2007 roku kierownik projektu badawczego finansowanego w ramach „Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst. Forschungsaufenthalte für Hochschullehrer und Wissenschaftler“ (DAAD), pt.: „Entwicklung einer AUTOCAD-Datenbank für Anwendungen der Entsorgungs- und Umwelttechnik“ i realizowanego w Hochschule Merseburg (FH) w Niemczech we współpracy z niemiecką firmą „Mitteldeutsche Umwelt- und Entsorgung GmbH (MUEG)”;
  • W 2011 roku kierownik projektu badawczego finansowanego w ramach „Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst. Forschungsaufenthalte für Hochschullehrer und Wissenschaftler“ (DAAD), pt.: „Computergestützte Visualisierung von Apparaten der Entsorgungs- und Umwelttechnik (Energietechnik)“ i realizowanego w Hochschule Merseburg (FH) w Niemczech we współpracy z niemieckimi firmami „efa Leipzig GmbH” i „Dr. Födisch Umweltmesstechnik AG”;
  • W 2016 roku kierownik projektu badawczego finansowanego przez Hochschule Merseburg(Niemcy), pt.: Vergleichende Untersuchung der Luftbelastung durch chemische Schadstoffe und Feinstaub in Sachsen-Anhalt und in der Wojewodschaft Lodz (Polen)“ i realizowanego w Hochschule Merseburg (FH) w Niemczech we współpracy z „Landesamt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt” (Państwowym Urzędem Ochrony Środowiska Saksoni-Anhalt);
  • W 2018 roku jako wnioskodawca i główny wykonawca projektu badawczego (planowane zakończenie koniec 2020 roku) finansowanego w ok. 80% przez Wojewódzki Fundusz Ochrony Środowiska i Gospodarki Wodnej w Łodzi i w ok. 20% przez Instytut Inżynierii Środowiska i Instalacji Budowlanych Politechniki Łódzkiej, pt.: Analiza przestrzenna zmian stanu zanieczyszczenia powietrza w aglomeracji łódzkiej.

Współpracuje z:

  • Hochschule Merseburg (Niemcy);
  • Fachhochschule Erfurt (Niemcy);
  • Hochschule Bremerhaven (Niemcy);
  • Czech Technical University in Prague (Czechy);
  • Abant Izzet Baysal University (Turcja);
  • Politechnic Institute of Braganca (Portugalia);
  • Universitat Rovira i Virgili, School of Chemical Engineering (Hiszpania);
  • Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz (Niemcy);
  • Universidade de Aveiro (Portugalia).

Stypendysta i stażysta:

  • 2016, 2012, 2006 - Hochschule Merseburg Deutschland (University of Applied Sciences);
  • 2012 - České Vysoké Učení Technické v Praze (Czech Technical University in Prague);
  • 2011, 2008, 2007, 2006 -  Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Groβanlagenbau (VDMA);
  • 2011, 2007 - Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst. Forschungsaufenthalte für Hochschullehrer und Wissenschaftler (DAAD);
  • 2006 - Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst. Stipendien- und Betreuungsprogramm für ausländische Studierende STIBET (DAAD-STIBET).

Przynależność  do organizacji doradczych, zawodowych i naukowych:

członek Głównej Sekcji Ciepłownictwa, Ogrzewnictwa, Wentylacji i Inżynierii Atmosfery Polskiego Zrzeszenia Inżynierów i Techników Sanitarnych Zarządu Głównego w Warszawie;

- członek Zespołu ds. Opracowania Programu Poprawy Jakości Powietrza Poprzez Ograniczenie Emisji Pyłów Zawieszonych w Łodzi;

- członek IBPSA-POLAND regionalnego oddziału International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA);

- członek Rady Wyrobów Budowlanych organu opiniodawczo-doradczego Głównego Inspektora Nadzoru Budowlanego w Warszawie;

- członek Zarządu O/Łódź Polskiego Zrzeszenia Inżynierów i Techników Sanitarnych;

- członek Grupy Roboczej ds. Zrównoważonego Kampusu Politechniki Łódzkiej;

- doradca w Łódzkiej Radzie Federacji Stowarzyszeń Naukowo-Technicznych Naczelnej Organizacji Technicznej (NOT) w specjalizacji:

  • energetyka cieplna;
  • zarządzanie w budownictwie;
  • odnawialne źródła energii (OZE);
  • monitoring środowiska;
  • inżynieria środowiska;
  • budowa i eksploatacja maszyn (przekładnie zębate i ślimakowe).

Obszar badań:

  • ochrona powietrza, w tym zagadnienia związane z emisja i imisją zanieczyszczeń;
  • monitoring środowiska;
  • instalacje w budownictwie niskoenergetycznym, odnawialne źródła energii;
  • komputerowe metody projektowania w systemach grzewczo-wentylacyjnych;
  • konstrukcja, technologia i eksploatacja przekładni zębatych ze szczególnym ukierunkowaniem na zazębienia ślimakowe.

Dorobek naukowy:


Opublikowane 104 artykuły i referaty w czasopismach oraz na konferencjach, w tym 1 monografia naukowa i rozdziały w monografiach:


2019 rok


104. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: Daily variability of air pollution in locations of different population density. E3S Web of Conferences 2019; 100:00011. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201910000011.

Abstract: The air quality levels vary during a day, especially in inhabited areas. Therefore, it seems reasonable to observe and analyze the occurrence of daily maximum and minimum level of air pollution. In this article, data obtained from automatic air quality monitoring stations located in 5 large, 5 small and medium cities and 5 villages in Poland was analyzed in 2012-2016. Those locations vary, inter alia, depending on number of inhabitants and population density, and for this reason also due to the presence of air contaminants. As an indicator of daily variability air pollution it was determined the ratio of maximum ​​to minimum concentrations of selected air pollutants (NO2 and NOx, and O3, SO2, CO, PM10 and PM2.5, and benzene) in urban and agricultural areas. In winter, the daily changes were bigger in cities than in villages. While in summer, the level of daily variability was similar, irrespective of  size of the settlement unit. The biggest daily changes concerned nitrogen oxides, the lowest -sulfur dioxide and dusts.

103. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.W.: Average Hourly Concentrations of Air Contaminants in Selected Urban, Town, and Rural Sites. 2019; Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-019-00627-8.

Abstract: The inhabitants of cities, towns and villages are exposed to different levels of air pollution, which also vary throughout the day. Information regarding episodes of poor and good air quality enables planning to mitigate the risks and maximize the benefits of spending time outdoors. In this work, an analysis was made of the state of air quality 2012-2016, using data gathered from automatic measuring stations located in five cities (> 50,000 inhabitants), five towns (5,000-50,000 inhabitants) and five villages (< 5000 inhabitants) in five neighboring provinces in central Poland, in Central Europe. The monitoring stations were designated as ‘city background’ (CB), ‘town background’ (TB) and ‘rural background’ (RB). Over 3 million pieces of data were collected from 15 monitoring stations. This allowed the average daily changes in the concentration of air pollutants (NO2 and NOx, O3, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, C6H6) to be determined, depending on the type of station and the size of the settlement unit in both winter periods (WP) and summer periods (SP). As a result, the ‘most’ and ‘least’ favorable hours in terms of levels of air pollution were identified. This information could help inform air quality management in modern cities, towns and villages, helping to improve the quality of life particularly among those most susceptible to the negative effects of air pollution, such as the elderly and children.

102. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: Effect of thermal sludge processing on selected components of air quality in the vicinity of a wastewater treatment plant. 2019; Chemical Papers 73(4):843-849. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-018-0636-y.

Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) generate considerable amounts of sewage sludge. The thermal sludge treatment system (TSTS) is therefore one of the most important technological unit of a WWTP. However, due to technological processes involved in thermal sludge treatment, specific chemical, physical and biological conditions may arise that can affect air quality both within the WWTP area and in its vicinity. This study uses data from experimental measurements taken in and around a WWTP to assess the impact of thermal sludge treatment on air quality. The selected facility is located in the Group Sewage Treatment Plant in the Lodz Agglomeration and serves a population of around one million. The concentrations of harmful gaseous substances, bacteria, fungi, particulate matter and thermal energy were investigated. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of physical, chemical and biological factors and their influence on air quality are presented.

101. Cichowicz R.: Smog - współczesny problem miast. 2019; XIX Festiwal Nauki, Techniki i Sztuki w Łodzi, Człowiek-Wiedza-Innowacje, Sala 1-1, https://program.festiwal.lodz.pl/impreza/szczegoly?id=1241.

100. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: Daily variability of air pollution in locations of different population density. 2019; 11th Conference on Interdisciplinary Problems in Environmental Protection and Engineering, Water, Air, Energy EKO-DOK, Polanica-Zdrój, Session VII-5.

Abstract: The air quality levels vary during a day, especially in inhabited areas. Therefore, it seems reasonable to observe and analyze the occurrence of daily maximum and minimum level of air pollution. In this article, data obtained from automatic air quality monitoring stations located in 5 large, 5 small and medium cities and 5 villages in Poland was analyzed in 2012-2016. Those locations vary, inter alia, depending on number of inhabitants and population density, and for this reason also due to the presence of air contaminants. As an indicator of daily variability air pollution it was determined the ratio of maximum ​​to minimum concentrations of selected air pollutants (NO2 and NOx, and O3, SO2, CO, PM10 and PM2.5,and benzene) in urban and agricultural areas. In winter, the daily changes were bigger in cities than in villages. While in summer, the level of daily variability was similar, irrespective of  size of the settlement unit. The biggest daily changes concerned nitrogen oxides, the lowest -sulfur dioxide and dusts.

99. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: Hourly profiles of air pollution variation in selected cities, towns and villages in Poland. 2019; 10th International Conference on Environmental Science and Development, Italy, Milan, Politecnico di Milano Session 6-K5042, Books of abstracts s. 59.

Abstract: Concentration of air pollution in urbanized and agricultural areas is related to the activity of various economy sectors (the so-called SNAP categories). Therefore, the change in the emission of pollutants by an anthropogenic source should result in a change in the air pollution level in the selected area. To better understand the interdependence of the nature of changes in air pollution concentration in urban and agricultural areas, an analysis of five-year air quality measurements was carried out at selected automatic air quality monitoring stations in Poland, Europe. The average hourly concentrations in selected areas in cities, towns and villages were compared with the hourly emission factors of power generation sector (SNAP1), residential and commercial combustion sector (SNAP2) and road transport sector (SNAP7). The hourly profiles of air pollution level were expressed by means of the “imission factor”, as analogous to the hourly profiles of the “emission factor” that is being used in the LOTOS-EUROS and the CHIMERE chemistry-transport models.


2018 rok


98. Cichowicz R.: Analysis of imission changes as a function of meteorological parameters around a large power plant (Analiza zmian imisji w funkcji parametrów meteorologicznych wokół dużego obiektu energetycznego). 2018; Monographs of Lodz University of Technology (Monografie Politechniki Łódzkiej), Edited by Lodz University of Technology (Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej), ISBN 978-83-7283-972-5.

The most important research goals: while conducting numerous studies on various (larger or smaller) construction and energy objects, and in their immediate environment, found that Polish and international publications lack a detailed study which would discuss the correlation between immission and meteorological parameters around power facilities. As a result, the main goal of research was to demonstrate/determine changes in immissions as a function of meteorological parameters around a large power plant (Najważniejsze cele badań: podczas prowadzenia licznych badań na różnych (większych lub mniejszych) obiektach zarówno budowlanych, jak i energetycznych oraz w ich  bezpośrednim otoczeniu stwierdzono, że w polskich i międzynarodowych publikacjach brakuje szczegółowego opracowania, które omówiłoby korelację pomiędzy imisją, a parametrami meteorologicznymi wokół obiektów energetycznych. W efekcie głównym celem przeprowadzonych badań było wykazanie/określenie zmian imisji w funkcji parametrów meteorologicznych wokół dużego obiektu energetycznego).

97. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.W.: Selected air pollutants in urban and rural areas, under the influence of power plants. 2018; Acta Innovations ISSN 2300-5599, 29:41-52. http://www.proakademia.eu/gfx/baza_wiedzy/497/nr_29_41-52_2.pdf.

Abstract: The operation of large power plants, including power stations, and combined heat and power stations, causes the emission of significant amounts of gaseous pollutants into the environment. As a result, in the urban and agricultural areas occurs a pollution of undesirable gaseous substances, such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides. This is especially dangerous for living organisms, soil and water, because, in combination with water vapor, these pollutants are the cause of acid rain. In addition, nitrogen oxides participate in the formation of ground‑level ozone, which affects both human health and the condition of existing vegetation. Therefore, the distribution of air pollutants (NO2, SO2 and O3) in the selected urban and rural areas, under the influence of power plants, located in the Lodz Voivodeship, in Poland, in Central-Eastern Europe, was analyzed for a 10‑year period (2007–2016). As a result, it was possible to evaluate the impact of the entry into force of Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 “on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe” on the changes in emissions and concentrations of pollutants in selected locations. As a result of the analysis, a significant decrease in the concentration of SO2 (by 75% in the urban area and by 59% in the rural area), and small changes (from - 8% to + 12%) in NO2 and O3 concentrations in ambient air were found. This indicates the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing SO2 emissions, however the influence of the power plants on the concentration of air pollutants in these areas is not clear. At the same time, considering the criterion of permissible concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, although the air quality did not improve, the air quality index can be considered as being in the category of "good".

96. Cichowicz R., Hanzl M.: Measuring CO2 emissions - implications for spatial development. 54th ISOCARP COngress 2018. Cool Planning: Changing Climate & Our Urban Future. ISBN: 978-94-90354-54-1. Norway, Bodø 01-05.10.2018. Proceedings:151-160, https://isocarp.org/app/uploads/2018/09/PROCEEDINGS_final.pdf.

Abstract: Regarding the broad range of issues affected by climate change, it influences all spheres of contemporary life and brings about numerous challenges, which require careful and comprehensive planning. It is commonly acknowledged and confirmed by international agreements (Paris UNFCCC Agreement of December 2015) that we must not ignore its consequences any longer. The extreme atmospheric events and severe cataclysms which are among the most dangerous humanity experienced so far make us consider issues of vulnerability and risk management and call both for immediate responses and long-term planning strategies. With over 97% of scientists recognising the human impact of climate change through the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the necessary actions to mitigate these processes have already started in many locations all over the world. Among the four scenarios adopted in IPCC 2015 Report only the most moderate one - RCP2.6 assumes the global surface temperature growth of 1,5°C by the end of the century (2100) comparing to the levels before the beginning of the industrial revolution (1850-1900). However, also this one characterises with the high level of uncertainty when it comes to the vulnerability of many regions all over the world. The other scenarios, and especially the one which assumes the continuation of the business-as-usual, offer much higher levels of uncertainty and risks. This undoubtedly means the necessity of immediate actions and nobody questions the role of planning for these activities. Postponing transformations means increased risks both for the current and future generations, the more that the societal processes require time to take place. The areas of knowledge and science related to air protection have now become key ones for people and natural environment. Therefore, all over the world air pollution measurements and analyses are carried out. It is not easy to determine the impact of various pollutants on the human body and surrounding environment, and thus a system for air monitoring and protection is necessary. The Polish environmental law is based on EU environmental legislation and was implemented before accession in 1999-2001. The main regulation on the air protection is based on CAFÉ Directive. The current research summarises the results of the measurements of the CO2 emissions taken in the area of the campus of Lodz University of Technology in Poland from the period covering the years 2012, 2014 and 2017. The concentrations of CO2 have been measured in the function of temperature, air pressure and wind speed. Measurements were also referred to the time of a day and year. This analytical layer has been overlapped with the one of urban development, this way providing the opportunity to assess the actual emissions of various types of structures. The concentrations of CO2 have been analysed against the overlaying development such as tall, isolated buildings, and denser, lower structures, parking lots and streets of various parameters, greenery - neighbourhood park and lawns, and finally proximity of power plant and electrical power and heating plant. The conclusions of the research conducted indicate future paths of the redevelopment of the area of the campus to reduce CO2 emissions and pollutants’ concentrations. They show for instance the necessity to use green roofs introduction of more greenery, change of traffic organisation and students transportation behaviours. The current large-scale surface parking should be replaced with multi-storey garages or eliminated. Public transportation and shared bike systems already present in Lodz should be more promoted and cycling and walking infrastructure improved. The results also show the dangers stemming from the presence of the coal power plant.

95. Janas M., Zawadzka A., Cichowicz R.: The influence of selected factors on leaching of metals from sewage sludge. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018; DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3094-8.

Abstract: In Poland, the amount of municipal sewage sludge that contains both organic and inorganic pollutants increases steadily. As a result of penetration of atmospheric precipitations through sludge layers, products of biochemical decomposition of organic matter and soluble mineral compounds are washed away and form contaminated leachates. Metals contained in these leachates may be particularly burdensome and dangerous, which is due to the toxic nature that disturbs the natural biological balance. In order to check bio-availability of metals in sewage sludge and find out resulting risks to the environment and human health, apart from the determination of total metal content, speciation analysis is often used. It makes possible a quantitative determination of various chemical forms of metals which are bound in the sewage sludge and finding which of them poses the greatest threat to the environment. The degree of immobilization of selected metals in sewage sludge has been determined using one of the sequential extraction methods designed to identify groups of compounds with which the metal is bound. Such a method is the Tessier procedure. Results of this research were used to assess the threat resulting from the increase in the amount of sewage sludge; the management of which is subject to constant restrictions (storage of sewage sludge has been prohibited since January 1, 2016). As a result of the conducted research, it was found that metals in sewage sludge, which undergo various transformations, are very difficult to immobilize. The addition of calcium oxide and an agent supporting the composting process to the sludge does not affect radically the increase of leaching of the analyzed elements from the sludge.

94. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Analysis of variations in air pollution fields in selected cities in Poland and Germany. ECOL CHEM ENG S. 2018; 25(2):217-227. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2018-0014.

Abstract: Variations in immission fields resulting from emissions and pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere were investigated. The analysis was based on data from the four-year period covering the years 2012-2015, collected in two automatic atmospheric air monitoring stations, one located in Germany in Magdeburg which is the capital of Saxony-Anhalt and the other in Poland in Lodz, i.e. the seat of Lodz Region authorities. Selected immission monitoring stations in both cities are located in the areas with similar urban development and are characterized by high levels of pedestrian and car traffic. In both measuring stations the following atmospheric air pollutants were measured: PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, and ozone (carbon monoxide was analyzed only for the station located in Lodz). On the basis of the measured data the periodic exceedance of air pollution limit values measured at both monitoring stations were observed, as well as the levels of particular pollutants and changes in immission fields were analyzed. It seems that this information may be useful not only to the competent authorities of the country but also to the users of these areas.

93. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: The PMV and PPD indices in the selected boiler room. E3S Web of Conferences 2018; 44:00021. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20184400021.

Abstract: Thermal microclimate in a boiler room is formed by factors resulting from thermal processes that are taking place in combustion units. These factors are negatively affecting the indoor environment by worsening the air quality, and therefore it is crucial to maintain adequate air parameters in the room. It is a consequence of the fact that in the boiler room the operation of technological equipment results in an exposure of workers to adverse effects caused by thermal factors. Therefore, the evaluation of thermal conditions in the work area of people was made for the selected industrial boiler room using PMV and PPD indices (which allow to determine the thermal sensation of employees, regarding their surrounding thermal environment, based on the methodology of ISO 7730 standard). The analysis was based on own experimental measurements and numerical calculations made in the DesignBuilder program.

92. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: The distribution of air temperature and velocity in the selected boiler room. E3S Web of Conferences 2018; 44:00020. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20184400020.

Abstract: The crucial impact on the indoor air quality in technological rooms, including boiler plant buildings, is made by operation of technological devices and ventilation systems. Therefore, the distribution of air temperature and velocity in these rooms mainly depends on location and heat gains generated by combustion devices, as well as emplacement of air supply and air exhaust elements. The temperature and airflow volume of supplied air is also an issue, because the indoor environment parameters are formed by the flow of air in the working area. Determination of the impact of physical factors on the thermal environment in a room is possible using an analysis of the air temperature and velocity. This issue is vital in terms of necessity to maintain the adequate heat conditions in the working area. Therefore, basing on the experimental measurements and numerical calculations (made in DesignBuilder software), the distribution of air temperature and velocity was analyzed in the selected industrial boiler room, located in the Lodz city, in Poland. The results obtained were compared with the recommended and limit values in the industrial buildings.

91. Namiecińska O., Wielgosiński G., Czerwińska J., Cichowicz R.: Simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides and polichlorinated dioxins and furants on scr catalyst (Jednoczesna redukcja tlenków azotu oraz rozkład polichlorowanych dioksyn i furanów na katalizatorze SCR). Rozdział w monografii: Aktualne problemy w inżynierii i ochronie atmosfery. Praca zbiorowa pod redakcją Kuropki J., Gaja K., Sówki I., Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, ISBN 978-83-7493-020-8, Wrocław 2018:144-153.

Abstract: Research was carried out on the implementation of a new catalytic technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans using a vanadium-tungsten catalyst produced in accordance with patent PL 218 300 - "Method of producing vanadium-tungsten catalyst for decomposition of chlorine containing organic compounds, especially dioxins and furans". The existing thermal waste treatment plant at the Bydgoszcz Oncology Center equipped with a SCR catalytic reactor was used for the research. A cycle of investigations of the flue gas cleaning process was carried out, resulting in a reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions at the level of 10-70% and reduction of PCDD/Fs emissions at the level of 50-82% depending on the temperature. 

90. Czerwińska J., Wielgosiński G., Namiecińska O., Cichowicz R.: Effect of selected parameters on the process of dry flue gas desulphurisation (Wpływ wybranych parametrów na proces suchego odsiarczania spalin). Rozdział w monografii: Aktualne problemy w inżynierii i ochronie atmosfery. Praca zbiorowa pod redakcją Kuropki J., Gaja K., Sówki I., Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, ISBN 978-83-7493-020-8, Wrocław 2018:40-47.

Abstract: The paper presents the results of research on the dry desulphurization process carried out in a medical waste incinerator. In order to reduce sulfur dioxide emission, two calcium and one sodium reagents were tested. The tests were carried out in the range of inlet concentrations of SO2 equal to 50-5000 mg/m3 and HCl concentrations in the range of 200-1600 mg/m3. The temperature of the desulfurization process was 130-180° C. The reagents were tested for three values of reagent dispense rate. The efficiency approx. 70-99% of SO2, and 50-99% of HCl emission reduction was obtained. The results of the tests showed that the best results of the flue gas purification were find for sodium reagent. 

89. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Analysis of variation of air pollution emissions from the sewage sludge thermal treatment plant in Łódź (Analiza zmian wielkości emisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza z emitorów instalacji termicznego przekształcania osadów ściekowych w Łodzi). Rozdział w monografii: Aktualne problemy w inżynierii i ochronie atmosfery. Praca zbiorowa pod redakcją Kuropki J., Gaja K., Sówki I., Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, ISBN 978-83-7493-020-8, Wrocław 2018:25-32.

Abstract: The analysis of changes in the emission of air pollutants from emitters of the sewage sludge thermal treatment plant was based on data from the four-year period covering the years 2012-2015, and derived from the automatic air pollution monitoring system, which was located in the Group Treatment Plant Sewage in Lodz. The emission monitoring system measured the following atmospheric pollutants: CO, NOx, SO2, dust, HCL and HF. As a result, the level of these pollutants was analyzed (based on daily concentration measurements) over time (months and years) and "no exceedances" were found. As a result, the obtained results should "calm down" the opponents of the application in close proximity to the Sewage Sludge Thermal Treatment Plant. Because none of the compounds exceeded the admissible values, and at the same time confirmed the need for continuous monitoring of emissions emitted to the atmosphere. For this reason, it seems that this information can be useful not only for users of this type of installation, but also for residents of surrounding areas.

88. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Analiza zmian wielkości emisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza z emitorów instalacji termicznego przekształcania osadów ściekowych w Łodzi. XIV Konferencja Naukowa POL-EMIS 2018. Aktualne problemy w inżynierii i ochronie atmosfery. Boguszów-Gorce 20-23.06.2018 r., I Sesja Plenarna, Prezentacja nr 7.

87. Namiecińska O., Wielgosiński G., Czerwińska J., Cichowicz R.: Jednoczesna redukcja tlenków azotu oraz rozkład polichlorowanych dioksyn i furanów na katalizatorze SCR. XIV Konferencja Naukowa POL-EMIS 2018. Aktualne problemy w inżynierii i ochronie atmosfery. Boguszów-Gorce 20-23.06.2018 r., I Sesja Plenarna, Prezentacja nr 6.

86. Czerwińska J., Wielgosiński G., Namiecińska O., Cichowicz R.: Wpływ wybranych parametrów na proces suchego odsiarczania spalin. XIV Konferencja Naukowa POL-EMIS 2018. Aktualne problemy w inżynierii i ochronie atmosfery. Boguszów-Gorce 20-23.06.2018 r., I Sesja Plenarna, Prezentacja nr 5.

85. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: Chemical, physical and biological influence of operation of sludge thermal transformation system on wastewater treatment plant area. 45th International Conference of the Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering (SSCHE). Tatranské Matliare – Slovakia 21-25.05.2018, Abstract s. 216. Materiały na CD(Po-Th-3, 087.pdf).

Abstract: As a result of technological processes, specific chemical, physical and biological conditions are created in the area of wastewater treatment plants. Consequently, considerable amounts of sewage sludge, requiring treatment and disposal, are generated. Therefore, installations for thermal treatment of sludge are one of the most important parts of sludge management system in wastewater treatment plants. However, it should be remembered that thermal treatment of sludge can affect chemical, physical and biological conditions both in a given sewage treatment plant and in its vicinity. Therefore, it seems that the analysis of the impact of drying and incineration of sludge on the chemical, physical and biological state of air quality outside sludge thermal treatment plant building can be a very important aspect. For this purpose, data from experimental measurements of emission and concentration of chemical factors (harmful gaseous substances), as well as of the presence of biological agents (bacteria and fungi) and physical factors (particulate matter, thermal energy), made in 2012–2016 in East-Central Europe, in central Poland, in the Group Sewage Treatment Plant of Lodz Agglomeration (serving about 1 million population equivalent), were used.

84. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Analysis of changes in immision field in vicinity of large chemical plants. 45th International Conference of the Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering (SSCHE). Tatranské Matliare – Slovakia 21-25.05.2018, Abstract s. 215. Materiały na CD(Po-Th-3, 086.pdf).

Abstract: The analysis of changes in the distribution of air pollution concentrations in terms of the impact of large chemical plants was carried out using data from 2 automatic atmospheric air quality monitoring stations located in central Europe, namely Bitterfeld-Wolfen (in Germany) and Pabianice (in Poland). The measurement data from the four-year period i.e. from 2012-2015 for the following pollutants were selected for the analysis: particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide and ozone as well. Monitoring stations worked continuously (24 hours), and all measurements were made in accordance with the reference methods. Analyzing the results of air quality monitoring, the occurrence of periodic exceedances of the permissible values of PM10 and O3 was observed on both measurement stations. The trend line of changes in all measured levels of pollution over time was also determined. On this basis, the impact on the pathway "chemical plant - measurement station" was analyzed and also the level of possible so-called "industrial contamination" in the immediate vicinity of both atmospheric air quality monitoring stations and the "scale" of the impact of large chemical plants on the surrounding area were examined.

83. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: The PMV and PPD indices in the selected boiler room. 10th Conference on Interdisciplinary Problems in Environmental Protection and Engineering  EKO-DOK 2018. Books of abstracts s. 22. Polanica-Zdrój 16-18.04.2018, Session XI-4.

Abstract: Thermal microclimate in a boiler room is formed by factors resulting from thermal processes that are taking place in combustion units. These factors are negatively affecting the indoor environment by worsening the air quality, and therefore it is crucial to maintain adequate air parameters in the room. It is a consequence of the fact that in the boiler room the operation of technological equipment results in an exposure of workers to adverse effects caused by thermal factors. Therefore, the evaluation of thermal conditions in the work area of people was made for the selected industrial boiler room using PMV and PPD indices (which allow to determine the thermal sensation of employees, regarding their surrounding thermal environment, based on the methodology of ISO 7730 standard). The analysis was based on own experimental measurements and numerical calculations made in the DesignBuilder program.

82. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.: The distribution of air temperature and velocity in the selected boiler room. 10th Conference on Interdisciplinary Problems in Environmental Protection and Engineering  EKO-DOK 2018. Books of abstracts s. 21. Polanica-Zdrój 16-18.04.2018, Session VI-3.

Abstract: The crucial impact on the indoor air quality in technological rooms, including boiler plant buildings, is made by operation of technological devices and ventilation systems. Therefore, the distribution of air temperature and velocity in these rooms mainly depends on location and heat gains generated by combustion devices, as well as emplacement of air supply and air exhaust elements. The temperature and airflow volume of supplied air is also an issue, because the indoor environment parameters are formed by the flow of air in the working area. Determination of the impact of physical factors on the thermal environment in a room is possible using an analysis of the air temperature and velocity. This issue is vital in terms of necessity to maintain the adequate heat conditions in the working area. Therefore, basing on the experimental measurements and numerical calculations (made in DesignBuilder software), the distribution of air temperature and velocity was analyzed in the selected industrial boiler room, located in the Lodz city, in Poland. The results obtained were compared with the recommended and limit values in the industrial buildings.

81. Cichowicz R.: Efektywność energetyczna budynków i oszczędność energii. Konferencja WFOŚiGW w Łodzi – Koncepcja funkcjonowania klastrów energii oraz finansowanie inwestycji w ramach klastra. Łódź 28.03.2018. Prezentacja nr 6, http://www.wfosigw.lodz.pl/aktualnosci_2/article,2120,1,1.html.

80. Wielgosiński G., Czerwińska J., Namiecińska O., Cichowicz R.: Smog episodes in the Lodz agglomeration in the years 2014-17. E3S Web of Conferences 2018; 28:01039. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20182801039.

Abstract: In recent years, in the winter season we are alarmed about the poor air quality in Poland and significantly exceeded permissible concentrations of certain pollutants, especially PM10 and PM2.5, which are a result of so-called low emissions. The authors analyze smog episodes in the Lodz agglomeration by comparing the recorded values of selected pollutant concentrations at monitoring stations of the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Lodz with the meteorological conditions prevailing at this time. The analysis covers data from the years 2014-2017.

79. Cichowicz R.: Spatial distribution of pollutants in the area of the former CHP plant. E3S Web of Conferences 2018; 28:01007. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20182801007.

Abstract: The quality of atmospheric air and level of its pollution are now one of the most important issues connected with life on Earth. The frequent nuisance and exceedance of pollution standards often described in the media are generated by both low emission sources and mobile sources. Also local organized energy emission sources such as local boiler houses or CHP plants have impact on air pollution. At the same time it is important to remember that the role of local power stations in shaping air pollution immission fields depends on the height of emitters and functioning of waste gas treatment installations. Analysis of air pollution distribution was carried out in 2 series/dates, i.e. 2 and 10 weeks after closure of the CHP plant. In the analysis as a reference point the largest intersection of streets located in the immediate vicinity of the plant was selected, from which virtual circles were drawn every 50 meters, where 31 measuring points were located. As a result, the impact of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia levels could be observed and analyzed, depending on the distance from the street intersection.


2017 rok


78. Cichowicz R., Sabiniak H.G., Lewandowska A.: Selected parameters of thermal comfort in rooms of university libraries (Wybrane parametry komfortu cieplnego w pomieszczeniach bibliotek uniwersyteckich). Budownictwo. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Częstochowskiej. PL ISSN 0860-7214. ISSN 0526-5916. 2017; 23(173):35-45. DOI: 10.17512/znb.2017.1.04. 

Abstract: The microclimate in the libraries should provide conditions both for the stored collections (books, paintings, etc.), not to lead to their destruction, not to cause discomfort to the working people and not to act destructively on the exploitation of this type of rooms. The analysis of thermal comfort parameters was performed for the three rooms of the Main Library of Lodz University of Technology by building geometric model and using the DesignBuilder software. Boundary conditions were determined experimentally, by the measurements carried out in the library rooms, by measuring air velocity and temperature within. The received from the numerical analysis distributions of temperature and air velocity in the zones of human presence were compared with the guidelines presented in Polish standards.

77. Cichowicz R.: Use of CFD modelling for analysing air parameters in auditorium halls. E3S Web of Conferences 2017; 22:00030. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20172200030.

Abstract: Modelling with the use of numerical methods is currently the most popular method of solving scientific as well as engineering problems. Thanks to the use of computer methods it is possible for example to comprehensively describe the conditions in a given room and to determine thermal comfort, which is a complex issue including subjective sensations of the persons in a given room. The article presents the results of measurements and numerical computing that enabled carrying out the assessment of environment parameters, taking into consideration microclimate, temperature comfort, speeds in the zone of human presence and dustiness in auditory halls. For this purpose measurements of temperature, relative humidity and dustiness were made with the use of a digital microclimate meter and a laser dust particles counter. Thanks to the above by using the application DesignBuilder numerical computing was performed and the obtained results enabled determining PMV comfort indicator in selected rooms.

76. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.W.: Analysis of air distribution using “age of air” concept in the selected boiler room. World Scientific News. EISSN 2392-2192. 2017; 88(2):168-182. http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/WSN-882-2017-168-182.pdf.

Abstract: The aim of a ventilation system is to provide a recommended amount of air (with the best possible quality) for both industrial buildings, including boiler plants, as well as for any other type of a room or a building. Its effectiveness depends on applied air distribution type, which results from the location of air supply and exhaust elements, as well as from velocity and temperature of supplied air. Influence of a ventilation system on air quality in a room can be determined using the air parameters or the "age of air" concept. For this reason, the numerical calculations of the "local mean age" of air (LMA) were made for the selected industrial boiler plant, located in the city of Lodz in Poland, and the analysis was made basing on the results of experimental measurements. The whole analysis was performed using the DesignBuilder program, which is based on the Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) method.

75. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G., Fetter W.: Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2017; 189:605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6319-2.

Abstract: Seasonal variation of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so-called summer and winter season also known as the Bheating^ season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day, and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009–2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in EasternWielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e., particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

74. Cichowicz R., Lewandowska A.: Numerical analysis of temperature and air stream velocity distributions in the cross-sections through a room with a book collection. Acta Innovations. ISSN 2300-5599. 2017; 25:21-28. http://www.proakademia.eu/gfx/baza_wiedzy/444/nr_25_21_28_2.pdf.

Abstract: The aim of the study was to analyze selected parametes of air in a room with a book collection taking into account the influence of components of mechanical ventilation on air flow, temperature and velocity distributions. The values of air parameters, obtained by numerical calculations in DesignBuilder, were compared with the recommended ranges. The temperature and air velocity in the cross-sections through the part of the room with the book resources were referred to the prescriptions and standards relating to the conditions in libraries. The parameters of air in the space for permanent stay of employees were compared with the guidelines corresponding to the conditions of thermal comfort.

73. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Przestrzenny rozkład zanieczyszczeń na terenie byłej elektrociepłowni. X Konferencji Naukowej Ochrona  Powietrza  w  Teorii  i  Praktyce. Zakopane 18-21.10.2017, Abstract s. 62. Zeszyt streszczeń, Zabrze 2017.

Abstract: Jakość powietrza atmosferycznego i poziom jego zanieczyszczenia to obecnie jedne z ważniejszych zagadnień związanych z życiem na Ziemi. Występujące i często opisywane w mediach uciążliwości i przekroczenia norm zanieczyszczeń generowane są zarówno przez źródła niskiej emisji energetycznej, jak i źródła ruchome. Wpływ na stan zanieczyszczenia powietrza mają również lokalne źródła emisji zorganizowanej typu energetycznego - np. lokalne ciepłownie, czy też elektrociepłownie. Należy jednocześnie pamiętać, że rola lokalnych elektrociepłowni w kształtowaniu pól imisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza jest uzależniona od wysokości emitorów oraz funkcjonujących instalacji oczyszczania gazów odlotowych. Obiektem badań był teren Zakładu EC-2 w Łodzi, który sąsiaduje w kierunku północno-zachodnim i zachodnim z zabudową o charakterze przemysłowym, natomiast w kierunku północnym, wschodnim, południowym i południowo-zachodnim z zabudową mieszkalną. W odległości 300 m na kierunku północnym i wschodnim od analizowanego obiektu występuję zabudowa 3 kondygnacyjna oraz 10-piętrowe akademiki zamieszkałe przez 10 miesięcy w roku. Natomiast dodatkowo na kierunku południowym występuje 3 kondygnacyjna zabudowa mieszkaniowa Osiedla Nowe Rokicie. Analizę rozkładu zanieczyszczeń powietrza przeprowadzono w 2 seriach / terminach, czyli po 2 i 10 tygodniu od zamknięcia jednej z elektrociepłowni w Łodzi. W analizie jako punkt odniesienia wybrane zostało największe skrzyżowanie ulic znajdujące się w bezpośrednim sąsiedztwie obiektu badań, od którego co 50 m zostały wytyczone „umowne” okręgi, na których zlokalizowano 31 punktów pomiarowych. Do pomiarów wykorzystany został mikrochromatograf, który pozwolił na prowadzenie analiz w warunkach polowych. Dzięki temu na wydzielonym obszarze po byłej elektrociepłowni lokalnie można było zaobserwować i przeanalizować wpływ poziomów stężeń ditlenku węgla, siarkowodoru i amoniaku w zależności od odległości do skrzyżowania ulic oraz wpływ warunków atmosferycznych na poziom koncentracji powyższych zanieczyszczeń w powietrzu atmosferycznym.

72. Wielgosiński G., Czerwińska J., Cichowicz R.: Epizody smogowe w aglomeracji łódzkiej w latach 2014-17. X Konferencji Naukowej Ochrona  Powietrza  w  Teorii  i  Praktyce. Zakopane 18-21.10.2017, Abstract s. 53. Zeszyt streszczeń, Zabrze 2017.

Abstract: W ciągu ostatnich lat, corocznie w okresie zimowym jesteśmy alarmowani w sprawie złej jakości powietrza w Polsce i znaczących przekroczeń dopuszczalnych stężeń niektórych zanieczyszczeń, w szczególności pyłu zawieszonego PM10 oraz PM2,5, będących skutkiem tzw. "niskiej emisji". W pracy przeanalizowano przebieg epizodów smogowych w aglomeracji łódzkiej porównując rejestrowane wartości stężeń wybranych zanieczyszczeń na stacjach monitoringowych Wojewódzkiego Inspektoratu Ochrony Środowiska w Łodzi z panującymi w tym okresie warunkami meteorologicznymi. Analiza objęto dane z lat 2014-2017.

71. Wielgosiński G., Namiecińska O., Cichowicz R.: Oddziaływanie na środowisko emisji ze spalarni odpadów w porównaniu do typowych instalacji ciepłowniczych. X Konferencji Naukowej Ochrona  Powietrza  w  Teorii  i  Praktyce. Zakopane 18-21.10.2017, Abstract s. 14. Zeszyt streszczeń, Zabrze 2017.

Abstract: W ostatnich latach wybudowano w Polsce 5 nowoczesnych spalarni odpadów komunalnych. Budowa dwóch kolejnych trwa, a jednocześnie rozważana jest budowa kilku kolejnych. Pomimo pozytywnych doświadczeń z eksploatacją istniejących instalacji każdy projekt budowy nowych spalarni budzi wiele emocji i protestów społecznych. W pracy porównano emisje ze spalarni odpadów komunalnych z emisją z typowych obiektów ciepłowniczych: w pierwszej części do porównania wybrano duże obiekty ciepłownicze wyposażone w kotły pyłowe (OP-140), rusztowe (3 kotły WR-35) lub bloki gazowe o mocy około 100 MW, zaś w drugiej części porównano najpopularniejsze w naszym ciepłownictwie kotły rusztowe WR-10 i WR-25 z instalacjami termicznego przekształcania odpadów komunalnych lub paliwa z odpadów (RDF) o podobnej mocy cieplnej. Analizowano zarówno bezwzględną wielkość emisji jak i oddziaływanie - imisję zanieczyszczeń w rejonie obiektu.

70. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.W.: Numerical analysis of convection along hot surface of equipment in the selected boiler room. World Scientific News. 2017; 87:150-162. http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/WSN-87-2017-150-162.pdf.

Abstract: The combustion processes, that are taking place in combustion units in boiler plants, result in heat production. Some of the heat is being exchanged between the thermal installation equipment and th air in such type of a room. In consequence, both the temperature of equipment's surface and of the indoor air rises. This results in natural convection effect, in which the air heated up from the equipment rises upwards (along with that part of the heat generated by combustion), and in its place flows the air of lower temperature. As a result of the phenomenon, there is a change in airflow in the room and a removal of part of heat gains from equipment. The numerical analysis of convection along hot surface of technological facilities and equipment was made on the basis of the numerical calculations of air parameters in the selected boiler room. Boundary conditions for the calculations were determined using the results of building energy simulation and the results of experimental measurements.

69. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Analysis of variation of air pollution fields in selected cities in Poland and Germany. Central European Conference ECOpole'17. Polanica Zdrój 04-07.10.2017, Abstract s. 17. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: A variation of immission field as a result of emission and pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere were investigated. The analysis was based on data from the four-year period covering the years 2012-2015, originating from two automatic atmospheric air monitoring stations located one in Germany in Magdeburg, the capital of the Land of Saxony-Anhalt and in Poland in Lodz, i.e. the city in which the authorities of the Lodz Region are located. Selected immission monitoring stations in both cities are located in areas with similar development and are characterized by high levels of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The following atmospheric air pollutants were measured at both measuring stations: PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, and ozone (carbon monoxide was analyzed only for a station located in Łódź). On the basis of the measured data, the overruns of atmospheric air pollution values measured at both monitoring stations were observed, as well as the levels of particular pollutants and changes in immission fields. It seems that this information may be useful not only to the competent authorities of the country but also to the users of these areas.

68. Namiecińska O., Czerwińska J., Wielgosiński G., Cichowicz R.: Air pollution impact assessment of alternative fuel combustion plant in comparison to the conventional heating plant. Central European Conference ECOpole'17. Polanica Zdrój 04-07.10.2017, Abstract s. 6-7. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: According to the Voivodship Waste Management Plans adopted in 2017, practically the total stream of mixed municipal solid waste (approx. 10 million Mg) is directed to more than 150 installations of mechanical-biological processing (MBT). In these installations approximately 3.5 million Mg of alternative fuels (often named as RDF - Refuse Derived Fuel) are produced. Only about 1 million Mg is combusted in cement plants and the rest is currently stored. RDF has a status of waste and must be incinerated in special incinerators. It is planned to build dozens of such installations, but this causes many social protests. In a lecture the emissions from the alternative fuel incineration plant with a similarly rated 30 MW grate boiler fired by hard coal WR-25 were compared. It has been shown that actual emissions from RDF incineration are considerably lower than during coal combustion, and the impact of the installation is considerably lower than that of conventional heating plants.

67. Czerwińska J., Namiecińska O., Wielgosiński G., Cichowicz R.Nitrogen oxides emission reduction on SCR catalyst. Central European Conference ECOpole'17. Polanica Zdrój 04-07.10.2017, Abstract s. 2. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: Nitrogen oxides are considered to be the most dangerous atmospheric pollutants. The new Directive 2010/75/EC on industrial emissions adopted in 2010 envisages significant reduction of emission standards for power plants and waste incineration plants in the coming years. The one of the most effective technologies for NOx emission mitigation is selective catalytic reduction - SCR which was evolved in the 1980s. Between April and July 2017, a research project funded by the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development, on implementation a SCR technology for of nitrogen oxide emissions in the medical waste incineration plant operating in the Bydgoszcz Center for Oncology were carried on. The installation has been equipped with a catalytic rector, with a catalyst originally prepared in Poland in accordance to patent PN 218 300. As a result of the tests, the use of a SCR catalytic converter has been found to reduce NOx emissions by approximately 70% (NOx concentration in exhaust gases was below 50 mg/m3N - 25% of the current emission standard for waste incineration plants and large combustion facilities). The research confirmed the high efficiency of the new catalyst, which costs about 25-30% less than the catalysts offered by foreign suppliers.

66. Cichowicz R., Stelęgowski A.W.: Numerical analysis of the selected air parameters in the industrial boiler plant. Acta Innovations. ISSN 2300-5599. 2017; 23:51-61. http://www.proakademia.eu/gfx/baza_wiedzy/430/nr_23_51_61.pdf.

Abstract: In every boiler plant, including industrial boiler plants of thermal capacity above 2 MW, substantial heat gains are generated during the work of combustion units. As a result, the indoor air temperature raises in the room, which affects thermal comfort of workers operating such technological installations. Therefore, heat removal requires an effective mechanical ventilation system.  A numerical analysis of the selected air parameters in a room equipped with combustion devices was undertaken using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations in the DesignBuilder software. This was done for a combustion plant in the “Installation of Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge” building, located in the “Group Sewage Treatment Plant” complex of Lodz, Poland. The numerical analysis was based on experimental measurements and the results concerning the personnel work area were compared to the guidelines of the ISO international standard 7730:2005.

65. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G., Fetter W.: Impact of pollutants emitted by large industrial plants on the quality of atmospheric air. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2017; 26(5A): 8-13.

Abstract: The impact of air pollution from the point of view of the activity of large industrial plants was determined using data from the measuring station located in Piotrkowice in Eastern Wielkopolska, Konin district, Ślesin community. In the analysis it was assumed that the largest industrial plants of the region that can influence the increase of pollution are the power plants: Pątnów I, Pątnów II and Konin. The presented analyses were based on meteorological data and to illustrate the scale of the hypothetical impact of various neighboring emitters (“low emission”), the average value of given pollution in the same period, i.e. in the years 2009-2015, was calculated. These data show that air pollution generated by production processes in industrial plants located in close proximity to the analyzed area is either significantly dispersed on the way between the emitter and the measuring station or the emitters are so high that the pollution is transmitted to far greater distances, and thus no direct impact on the given area is observed.

64. Janas M., Zawadzka A., Cichowicz R.: Application of Tessier method for elution of metals from sewage sludge. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2017; 26(5A): 37-41.

Abstract: In Poland there is a systematic increase in the amount of municipal sewage sludge. It contains many valuable substances and can therefore be used as an organic fertilizer to improve the soil structure. However, it may contain substances, such as heavy metals, that are harmful and toxic to humans and the environment. This implies the problem of leaching pollutants accumulated in sewage sludge that get into water and soil and can adversely affect the environment. The overall heavy metal content in sewage sludge is not a reliable indicator for assessing the hazards it poses. It is necessary to determine the percentage of metals in mobile and immobile fractions, which is commonly made with the use of sequential analysis. Many methods of sequential analysis are described in the literature, but the most effective, popular and accurate way to assess the amount of mobile and immobile forms of heavy metals is the Tessier method. The degree of immobilization of selected heavy metals (nickel, mercury, lead and zinc) in sewage sludge was determined by the Tessier procedure. The present study was used to assess the risk resulting from the sewage sludge management.

63. Wielgosiński G., Namiecińska O., Cichowicz R.: Modeling of non-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2017; 26(5A): 85-91.

Abstract: Selective non-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (SNCR) is one of the commonly used methods for reducing NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion and waste incineration. Because of necessity to comply with new legal regulations (since January 1, 2016), all Polish power plants have to be equipped with systems of exhaust gas denitrification, mainly by the SNCR method. The paper presents the authors’ mathematical model of the SNCR process, which was carried out with the use of aqueous urea solution, and the results of computer simulation. The influence of selected factors (temperature, initial concentration, excess of reducing agent) on the effectiveness of the method and the secondary ammonia emission from the process were analyzed. The results of computer simulation were compared with the results of research carried out during the implementation of this technology in the new medical waste incinerator of the Oncology Center in Bydgoszcz.

62. Wielgosiński G., Namiecińska O., Cichowicz R.: Modeling of non-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides. IX Konferencja Naukowa Ochrona i Inżynieria Środowiska - Zrównoważony Rozwój. Kraków – Kocierz 07-08.09.2017, Informator, CH-2, Abstract s. 29.

61. Janas M., Zawadzka A., Cichowicz R.: Application of Tessier method for elution of metals from sewage sludge. IX Konferencja Naukowa Ochrona i Inżynieria Środowiska - Zrównoważony Rozwój. Kraków – Kocierz 07-08.09.2017, Informator, CH-9, Abstract s. 19.

60. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G., Fetter W.Impact of pollutants emitted by large industrial plants on the quality of atmospheric air. IX Konferencja Naukowa Ochrona i Inżynieria Środowiska - Zrównoważony Rozwój. Kraków – Kocierz 07-08.09.2017, Informator, CH-3, Abstract s. 16.

59. Wielgosiński G., Cichowicz R., Targaszewska A., Wiśniewski J.: The use of LCA method to assess environmental impact of sewage sludge incineration plantsECOL CHEM ENG S. 2017; 24(2):263-275. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2017-0018.

Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the new, little more popular in Poland of elements of environmental management. In the world literature one can find many examples of the use of LCA but mainly for comparison purposes. The paper presents results of LCA analysis made on the basis of data from a running incineration of sewage sludge. Performing a thorough analysis of this process enables improved operational system, including through a better use of the resulting products of combustion, as well as determining the impact of the thermal treatment of sludge on the environment and compared the results with data from the literature. To date, in Poland has not been carried out environmental impact assessments and the process of thermal treatment of both sludge and waste, based on the assumptions of LCA.

58. Cichowicz R.: Use of CFD modelling for analysing air parameters in auditorium halls. 1st International Conference on Advances in Energy Systems and Environmental engineering. Wroclaw 02-05.07.2017, Poster Session I-1 Energy Environment & Buildings.Abstract s. 38-39. Books of abstracts. Clean Energy, Clean Water, Clean Air.  

Abstract: Modelling with the use of numerical methods is currently the most popular method of solving scientific as well as engineering problems. Thanks to the use of computer methods it is possible  for example to comprehensively describe the conditions in a given room and to determine thermal comfort, which is a complex issue including subjective sensations of the persons in a given room. The article presents the results of measurements and numerical computing that enabled carrying out the assessment of environment parameters, taking into consideration microclimate, temperature comfort, speeds in the zone of human presence and dustiness in auditory halls. For this purpose measurements of temperature, relative humidity and dustiness were made with the use of a digital microclimate meter and a laser dust particles counter. Thanks to the above by using the application DesignBuilder numerical computing was performed and the obtained results enabled determining PMV comfort indicator in selected rooms.

57. Cichowicz R.: Typowe problemy przy projektowaniu instalacji TPOK. II Seminarium Eksploatacja zakładów TPOK – doświadczenia. Białystok 12-13.06.2017, Panel I-2.

56. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G., Fetter W.: Effect of wind speed on the level of particulate matter PM10 in atmospheric air during winter season. 44th International Conference of SSCHE. Demänovská Dolina – Slovakia 22-26.05.2017, Abstract s. 172. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: The concentrations of suspended particulate matter PM10 in two-month winter period, i.e. December-January 2009-2015, were analyzed in relation to the values of wind speed in that time. It was possible to analyze results of air pollution measurements performed in the measuring station from the perspective of their higher levels in winter seasons (so-called smog episodes). Results from 3 stations of the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Poznań (WIOŚ Poznań) served for better presentation of smog episodes in the region (black smog) and aimed at verification of correctness of the measurements of pollution immission in the monitoring station in Piotrkowice. The analysis confirmed that with low speeds of wind higher values of particulate matter PM10 were observed.The results of the analysis also show the displacement of pollutants according to the current wind direction or their local persistence for a longer time over one area.

55. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G., Fetter W.: Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season. 44th International Conference of SSCHE. Demänovská Dolina – Slovakia 22-26.05.2017, Abstract s. 171. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: Seasonal character of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so called “summer” season and “winter” season also known as the “heating” season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009-2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in Eastern Wielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e. particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity and wind speed.

54. Cichowicz R., Michalska B.: Air pollution and hydromorphological description of the river. World Scientific News. 2017; 73(1):80-91. http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WSN-731-2017-80-91.pdf.

Abstract: Hydromorphological assessment of surface water status not only takes into account biological and physicochemical components, but also structural characteristics of surface waters including among others: hydrological regime, river continuity and morphological conditions. It should be borne in mind that the quality of surface water is also influenced by atmospheric conditions and the type of pollution that occurs in the areas surrounding the catchment area. Because harmful substances can get into the tanks both as a result of precipitation that can absorb atmospheric pollutants and by leaching from neighboring areas of solid contaminants there. It is therefore important to conduct surface water analysis in conjunction with air quality monitoring.

53. Cichowicz R., Lewandowska A.: The analysis of selected parameters of thermal comfort in the classrooms using CFD technique. World Scientific News. 2017; 73(1):72-79. http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WSN-731-2017-72-79.pdf.

Abstract: The microclimate parameters, such as temperature and air velocity, have a large influence on the sensations, as well as on the effectiveness of the student learning. Therefore, the heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are designed to provide such parameters of the internal environment, which will guarantee thermal comfort for people staying in classrooms. The analysis of selected air parameters was realized based on the two rooms located in the building of Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering at Lodz University of Technology. For this purpose, the DesignBuilder program was used to obtain the temperature and air velocity distributions in the students presence zone.

52. Cichowicz R., Sabiniak H.G., Lewandowska A.: Selected parameters of thermal comfort in rooms of university libraries (Wybrane parametry komfortu cieplnego w pomieszczeniach bibliotek uniwersyteckich). II Międzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna Współczesne Problemy Budownictwa (Teoria i Praktyka). Olsztyn k. Częstochowy 06-07.04.2017, Session II-4.

Abstract: The microclimate in the libraries should provide conditions both for the stored collections (books, paintings, etc.), not to lead to their destruction, not to cause discomfort to the working people and not to act destructively on the exploitation of this type of rooms. The analysis of thermal comfort parameters was performed for the three rooms of the Main Library of Lodz University of Technology by building geometric model and using the DesignBuilder software. Boundary conditions were determined experimentally, by the measurements carried out in the library rooms, by measuring air velocity and temperature within. The received from the numerical analysis distributions of temperature and air velocity in the zones of human presence were compared with the guidelines presented in Polish standards.

51. Cichowicz R.: Stan jakości powietrza w dużej aglomeracji miejskiej i jego wpływ na życie. Prezentacja Targowa na XXIV Targach Budownictwa i Wyposażenia Wnętrz INTERBUD 2017. Łódź 10-12.03.2017, Materiały informacyjne.


2016 rok


50. Wielgosiński G., Cichowicz R., Wiśniewski J.: Ammonia emission from sewage sludge incineration process. ECOL CHEM ENG S. 2016; 23(4): 665-675. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2016-0047.

Abstract: In quantitative terms, sludge produced in the process of municipal wastewater treatment represents a small part of the total waste generated in municipal sources - its quantity represents only a few percent of the generated mass of municipal waste. However, the threats it brings, do not allow it to be neglected while designing the wastewater treatment process. At the same time, with increasing requirements regarding the quality of sewage discharged into the environment, there is an increase in the amount of sludge produced in wastewater treatment processes. In recent years, the share of thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has risen sharply - about 12 modern sludge incineration plants have been built and construction of new ones is considered. During more than a four-year operation of the sewage sludge incineration plant in the Combined Sewage Treatment Plant in Lodz (GOS) a large ammonia emission from the combustion process was observed. So, a decision was taken to examine this process. The paper presents results of ammonia emission from the combustion of sewag sludge from GOS as a function of temperature.

49. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Analysis of the concentration levels of carbon dioxide on an university campus. Central European Conference ECOpole'16. Zakopane 05-08.10.2016, Abstract s. 15. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: Atmospheric air is part of the environment for which it can not be separated any natural protective barrier, and therefore it is the recipient of large quantities of different kinds of pollutants, both acting on the human organism and on the surrounding environment. Then, it becomes necessary to control and analysis of the impact of various pollutants not only globally, but also in continental, national and local scale. For this reason, the measurements of the concentrations of carbon dioxide on the campus of the Technical University of Lodz were done. The area for analysis is about 16 hectares, on which there are 19 buildings (both nineteenth-century palaces and revitalized factory buildings) surrounded by a paved pavenents (roads and parking lots), and adjacent green area. This area is characterized by diverse buildings (both dense and biologically active) and a high pedestrian and car traffic as well. Measurements of CO2 concentrations were carried out in selected 9 days in 2012 and 2014, in 83 and 86 repeatable locations. On the basis of the measurements was found only a local variation in the concentration of carbon dioxide, which can adversely affect the operation of the uners of the site.

48. Wiśniewski J., Wielgosiński G., Cichowicz R.: Analysis of the functioning of the flue gases purification system in sewage sludge incineration plant in Group Wastewater Treatment Plant in Lodz. Central European Conference ECOpole'16. Zakopane 05-08.10.2016, Abstract s. 9. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: Emerging in the process of municipal wastewater treatment sludge in quantitative terms represents a small percentage of the total waste generated in municipal - their number represents only a few percent of the mass of municipal waste generation. But the threats they bring, do not allow their omission in the design of the wastewater treatment process. At the same time, with increases the amount of sludge produced in wastewater treatment processes. In recent years, the share of thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has risen sharply - built about 11 modern incineration of sludge and considered is the construction of new ones. The study analyzed the functioning flue gases purification system in sewage sludge incineration plant in Group Sewage Treatment Plant in Lodz. The changes of the emission of most important pollutants and the interdependence of some emission parameters was presented.

47. Namiecińska O., Wielgosiński G., Cichowicz R.: Modeling of flue gases dry desulphurization. Central European Conference ECOpole'16. Zakopane 05-08.10.2016, Abstract s. 4. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: Flue gas cleaning systems in waste incineration plants have evolved over the last 50 years. At the beginning of the new millennium, taken action to simplify and thereby decreasing costs of construction of treatment systems for waste incineration plants. Progress has been made in the textile industry allowed for a broad introduction fabric filters working in high temperatures (140-200°C). Fabric filters could at the same time the possibility of using the dry method the removal of acid gases, since a substantial portion of chemical reactions proceed on the surface of the filter. Currently, the dry exhaust gas cleaning system became widely used in typical installations flue gas purification system in waste incineration plants. The paper presents a mathematical model of the process of removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases with solid calcium oxide. Performed simulations showing the impact of selected parameters on the desulfurization reaction course and yield.

46. Wielgosiński G., Cichowicz R., Wiśniewski J.: Investigation of ammonia emission from sewage sludge incineration process. ASSM 2016 Advances in Sustainable Sewage Sludge Management ­– 5th International Conference on The Biodegradable Waste in Circular Economy. Cracow 18-21.09.2016, Abstract s. 254-258. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: In quantitative terms, sludge emerging in the process of municipal wastewater treatment represents a small part of the total waste generated in municipal sources – its quantity represents only a few percent of the generated mass of municipal waste. However, the threats it brings, do not allow it to be neglected while designing the wastewater treatment process. At the same time, with increasing requirements regarding the quality of sewage discharged into the environment, there is an increase in the amount of sludge produced in wastewater treatment processes. In recent years, the share of thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has risen sharply. The paper presents results of a laboratory investigation of ammonia emission from the combustion of sewage sludge from 3 sewage treatment plants as a function of temperature.

45. Cichowicz R.: Designing of a water supply and sewerage system using BIM. Rynek Instalacyjny. 2016; (4): 103-105.

Abstract: The article describes the typical stages of sanitary installations designing using the computer system for Building Information Modeling (BIM). This system can be used to optimization and verification of any water supply and sewerage installations desing, because we can enter the whole model and parametric design of the building. This will help avoid common design errors. BIM allows already at the design stage to carry out a series of comparisons and simulations on model of the whole building and, among others, eliminating collisions of various installations.

44. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G., Targaszewska A.: Analysis of CO2 concentration distribution inside and outside small boiler plants. ECOL CHEM ENG S. 2016; 23(1): 49-60. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2016-0003.

Abstract: Analysis of the distribution of CO2 concentrations was performed for a water-and-steam boiler plant located in a detached building supplying thermal energy to a hospital. The boiler plant was equipped with two low-temperature boilers and one high-temperature steam boiler. The maximum thermal energy demand of the hospital was 4280, 3500 kW of which came from the hot-water boilers and the remaining 780 kW from the steam boiler. Due to the operating system there were no permanent job positions in the boiler plant. Servicing consisted only in the supervision, periodic adjustment and maintenance of the equipment. These kinds of working conditions release the employer from the necessity to perform tests and measurements of working conditions in such a building. On the other hand, continuous measurements are made because of the installation safety and emissions of pollutants into the environment. The article presents results of the measurements and analysis of the distribution of CO2 concentration did not depend on the ambient air temperature. The resulting values are similar regardless of whether the measurements were taken in December 2012 or April 2013. However, there is an evident impact of seasons on the concentrations in the indoor air associated primarily with the demand for heat during the given period, the stay of people in the workplace and the number of working devices.


2015 rok


43. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Effect of meteorological conditions and building location on CO2 concentration in the university campus. ECOL CHEM ENG S. 2015; 22(4): 513-525. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2015-0030.

Abstract: The quality of atmospheric air and the level of its pollution is inextricably linked with the development of humanity. Its prevalence and the lack of any natural protective barriers causes that it becomes a recipient of increasingly large amounts of different types of pollutants. This is particularly dangerous in the areas where both meteorological conditions and type of building prevent the spread of pollution. By using a portable gas micro-chromatograph it is possible to observe and analyze a seasonal impact of building density on carbon dioxide concentration and the effect of atmospheric conditions on CO2 level in the air in a specified area.

42. Cichowicz R.: Wykorzystanie BIM do komputerowego projektowania instalacji wodociągowo-kanalizacyjnych. VIII Zjazd Kanalizatorów Polskich POLKAN'15. 26-27.11.2015. Łódź.

Abstract:Dynamiczny rozwój systemów i metod komputerowych jaki nastąpił w ostatnich latach spowodował, że możliwe stało się trójwymiarowe modelowanie budynków i instalacji budowlanych. Wykorzystanie tego rodzaju narzędzi cyfrowych może zrewolucjonizować klasyczne podejście do projektowania, wykonywania i eksploatacji kazdego rodzaju obiektów budowlanych. W artykule opisano typowe etapy pojawiające się przy wykonywaniu komputerowego projektu instalacji sanitarnych za pomocą systemu do modelowania informacji o budynku BIM (z ang. Building Information Modeling). System ten może zostać wykorzystany do zoptymalizowania i zweryfukowania dowolnego projektu instalacji wodociągowo-kanalizacyjnej, ponieważ wprowadzony jest w nim modelowy, parametryczny projektcałego budynku, który pozwala na uniknięcie typowych błędów projektowych. Powoduje to, że praca projektanta instalacji sanitarnych jest bardziej odpowiedzialna, ponieważ juz na etapie projektu mozliwe jest przeprowadzenie szeregu porównań i symulacji na modelu całego budynku (np. można wyeliminować kolizję miedzy różnymi instalacjami). Dzięki temu może stać się on pomocny zarówno w praktyce inżynierskiej, jak i w nauczaniu studentów, czyli przyszłych projektantów, technologów o eksploatatorów tego typu obiektów.

41. Wielgosiński G., Targaszewska A.,Wiśniewski J., Cichowicz R.: Application of LCA method for assessment of impact of sewage sludge incineration on environment. Central European Conference ECOpole'15. Jarnołtówek 14-17.10.2015, Abstract s. 13-14. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the new, little more popular in Poland of elements of environmental management. In the world literature one can find many examples of the use of LCA but mainly for comparison purposes. Performed the analyzes are different groups compete with each other products. On the other hand noticeable is the new trend involving the performance analyzes for processes and services that are not without impact on the environment. The paper presents results of LCA analysis made on the basis of this process enables improved operational system, including through a better use of the resulting products of combustion, as well as determining the impact of the thermal treatment of sludge on the environment and compared the results with data from the literature. To date, in Poland has not been carried out environmental impact assessments and the process of thermal treatment of both sludge and waste, based on the assumptions of LCA. Although there is some controversy as to the use of this method due to its ambiguous nature, it is increasingly used in both the design, planning for development strategy and the competitiveness of the market attractiveness of the product being analyzed. In the case of the process of thermal treatment of sludge and waste, the implementation of life cycle assessment may be the next step to acquaint the public with issues of incineration, the enlargement of general knowledge about the harmful effects of this process and its actual impact on the environment.

40. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G., Targaszewska A.: Analysis of CO2 concentration distribution inside and outside small boiler plants. Central European Conference ECOpole'15. Jarnołtówek 14-17.10.2015, Abstract s. 18. Materiały na CD.

Abstract: Analysis of the distribution of CO2 concentrations were performed to the boiler water and steam based in a detached building supply hospital settings, where there are two low-temperature boilers and one steam boiler high temperature. The maximum demand thermal hospital is 4280 kW, 3500 kW of which comes from the hot-water boilers, and the remaining 780 kW of steam boiler. Due to the system of work boiler room, on its territory they are not situated permanent job positions. Operations consist only supervision, periodic adjustment and maintenance. These kinds of working conditions absolve the employer from having to perform tests and measurements of the working environment in such a building. In contrast, continuous measurements are made for reasons of safety of the installation and pollutants emitted into the environment. The article presents the results of measurments with analyze of the distribution of CO2 concentrations inside and outside the building a small boiler room, thanks to which it was found that the level of concentration of carbon dioxide does not affect the outside air temperature. The resulting values are similar regardless of whether the measurements were made in December 2012, or in April 2013. On the other hand noticeable is the impact of seasons on the levels of concentrations in the indoor air, which is associated primarily with the demand for heat during the period, the frequency of occurrence of people in the workplace and the number of working devices.

39. Cichowicz R., Wielgosiński G.: Effect of urban traffic on the immission of carbon dioxide in the university campus. ECOL CHEM ENG S. 2015; 22(2): 189-200. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2015-0010.

Abstract: The condition and quality of atmospheric air plays a very important role in the life of every living organism, including man. Every day we breathe atmospheric air containing CO2 whose level changes depending both on many external factors and physicochemical processes. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air changes, among other things, due to the influence of communication routes which may adversely affect the environment. For this reason it is necessary to analyze changes in CO2 concentrations and try to determine their impact on the functioning of users of the area (so, one can observe and analyze seasonal impact of communication routes on separate sub-areas of research).

38. Cichowicz R., Bratkowska M.: Modeling the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere by standards used in Germany. Acta Innovations. ISSN 2300-5599. Nr 14. 2015. s. 5-16. http://www.proakademia.eu/gfx/baza_wiedzy/269/nr_14_5-16.pdf.

Abstract: Environmental monitoring is to conduct research on the environment quality as well as to, observe and assess of the state and changes that take place. The analysis takes into account the emission from line, surface and points sources, which adversely affect the environment. Emission point sources mainly represented by power plants spread harmful substances even tens of kilometres. To follow the pollutants way in the atmosphere and to choose places for new sources of emissions in order to, minimise their impact on the environment, dispersion modelling is used. One of the modelling methods is the Lagrangian's model currently used in Germany in the AustalView software. The article presents the steps of performing calculations atmospheric dispersion of pollutants, according to German standards on the example Power Plant Schkopau in Germany. This makes it possible to analyze the degree of air pollution depending on the distance from the source, and the resulting information can be useful to define the best localization the newly designed power plant through a system of marking the places where the highest pollutant concentrations were recorded.

37. Cichowicz R., Sabiniak H., Wielgosiński G.: The influence of a ventilation on the level of carbon dioxide in a classroom at a higher university. ECOL CHEM ENG S. 2015; 22(1): 61-71. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2015-0003.

Abstract: Carbon dioxide can affect on human mood and working conditions in closed area. Knowledge about the level of air pollutants concentration in the room, should be a guideline to design a properly working ventilation system. For years carbon dioxide, appearing during human breathing, was not taken into consideration as a factor determining the process of ventilation systems design. At present the assessment of air quality in closed rooms is performed on the basis of measurement of concentration of carbon dioxide metabolically produced by humans that can be referred to the so-called hygienic minimum, eg the upper limit of CO2 concentration equal to 1000 ppm (0.1%).


2014 rok


36. Abramczyk Ł., Domińczyk A., Ślęzak R., Cichowicz R.: Influence of microbial activity on the biodrying process. Acta Innovations. ISSN 2300-5599. Nr 13. 2014. s. 5-12. http://www.proakademia.eu/gfx/baza_wiedzy/261/nr_13_5_12.pdf.

Abstract: The examination of the biodrying process was performed in a bioreactor with working volume 240 dm3. In the studies used the digested sludge from sewage treatment plants and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. During the biodrying process were determined: dry matter, organic dry matter, temperature of material and respiration activity. As a result of the process of drying the waste by 10 days the amount of moisture removed was 51.7%. The highest microbial activity was on day 4 of the process when the temperature has reached the maximum 58°C in the upper layer of the waste at the middle of the bioreactor.

35. Michnikowski P., Cichowicz R.: Evaluation of methods for heat costs allocation in apartment buildings. INSTAL. Teoria i praktyka w instalacjach. 2014. 10(355). s. 30-35.

Abstract: This paper describes the requirements of the Directive on energy efficiency on a universal metering housing stock has not yet settled on the basis of individual energy consumption. Specifies the fundamental problems associated with the settlement of individual costs of heating units in multifamily buildings. Mentioned difficulties with the assessment of the accuracy of accounting for individual heating costs made on the basis of indications of electronic allocators, from the point of view of the individual user. The paper presents methods of evaluation criteria based on the so-called settlement. guidelines of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) published in 2009., which well match with the realities of the Polish construction industry. With the use of an assessment of three methods of accounting for individual heating costs for the same unit of account.

34. Cichowicz R., Gawron-Skarbek A., Godala M., Zimna-Walendzik E., Sabiniak H., Szatko F.: Assessment of carbon dioxide concentration in the air of selected university facilities. Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii 2014. 95(2). s. 287-291.

Abstract: Carbon dioxide concentration over 1 000 ppm i.e. above so-called sanitary minimum for confined spaces may attenuate effectiveness of work or education in people staying inside. In lecture rooms a mechanical ventilation is often knowingly turned off to reduce a specific noise during its working or there is lack of any ventilation. The main aim of the study was to measure a CO2 concentration in selected facilities at university while mechanical ventilation system was turned off and to determine a time period after which the values of CO2 concentration exceed the sanitary minimum level. CO2 concentration was measured in selected facilities in building of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering Faculty of Lodz University of Technology in which classes with students are usually taken (computer lab, auditoria, lecturer’s room) with a portable gas microchromatograph. Dynamics of CO2 concentration changes was conducted in 45 minutes time period, repeating next measurement by 3 minutes. CO2 concentration in the air of three examined auditoria considerably exceeded permissible values for closed rooms even during the 1st hour of classes/measurement reaching maximum CO2 values equal: 1 298 ppm for bigger-sized auditorium (cubature: 825 m3, at presence of 18 persons inside), 6 689 and 3 006 ppm for two smaller-sized auditoria (690 m3, at presence of 83 and 44 persons inside respectively). While classes in computer lab (125 m3, 17 people inside) already in 23rd minute of measurement CO2 concentration reached 951 ppm. Also routine measurement in lecturer’s room showed the overrun of sanitary minimum amounting to 1 146 ppm. CO2 concentration in studied facilities at not working ventilation system exceeded values of sanitary minimum what should not take place especially in spaces dedicated for education.

33. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: CAD and CAE methods in computer assisted design of worm meshes. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej. Seria: Transport z. 82. Gliwice 2014. s. 235-242.

Abstract: One important feature of worm gear meshes is their complex geometry and now the application of computer aided design allows for mapping their real construction patterns with great affinity. Modelling of worm meshes with the use of CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methods enables tracking the design process from the very beginning, i.e. from the concept or specific assumptions, until the final stage only by using appropriate software, thereby lowering the costs and eliminating common errors. Owing to this, just before the manufacturing process of the first meshing elements begins, one can conduct geometric analysis and correct or modify working profiles of the teeth in order to improve the operation properties of future gear. Visualizing such a geometric modelling process can also serve didactic purposes when used in education of future engineers, technologists and operators of this type of gears.


2013 rok


32. Heinz D., Cichowicz R.: Computergestützte Visualisierung von Apparaten der Energie- und Umwelttechnik. Forschungsbericht 2013. Forschung an der Hochschule Merseburg.  s. 16-18.

Abstract: Die Dr. Födisch Umweltmesstechnik AG entwickelt gemeinsam mit der efa Leipzig GmbH ein effizientes, umweltverträgliches Energieversorgungssystem. Wesentliche Bestandteile sind eine Hackschnitzelheizung, eine Microgasturbine, ein Wärmespeicher, eine Holzvergasungsanlage sowie eine  Photovoltaikanlage. Dieses Energieversorgungssystem ist modular aufgebaut. Nur die Zusammenstellung bereits bestehender Module und die Anpassung einzelner Anlagenkomponenten gewährleisten jederzeit eine günstige aber optimale Lösung. Die Arbeiten zur Optimierung des Systems (Anpassung und Abgleich der Komponenten, Energiemixsteuerung u. a.) werden durch die Hochschule Merseburg im Rahmen von Industrieprojekten und Bachelorarbeiten unterstützt. Ein wesentliches Ziel des realisierten Projekts bestand darin, das Modul Hackschnitzelverbrennung zu visualisieren. Die Modellierung und Visualisierung mittels CAD/CAE bestand aus folgenden Etappen: Festlegung der gegeben Geometrie aller Systemkomponenten in 2D CAD; Transformation des 2D-Profils in eine 3D-Darstellun; Montage der vorbereiteten Systemelemente; Vorläufiges Verstecken nicht benötigter Teile; Montage der ausgewählten Systemkomponenten zur Visualisierung der Energie- bzw. Brennstoffversorgung; Korrektur und Dimensionierung der ausgewählten Systemkomponenten zur Untersuchung verschiedener Design-Lösungen; Import bzw. Export von Systemkomponenten; Visualisierung der Prozesse und Ströme.

31. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: CAD and CAE methods in computer assisted design of worm meshes. XXVI Sympozjon PKM. Szczyrk - 9-13.09.2013. s. 235-242.

Abstract: One important feature of worm gear meshes is their complex geometry and now the application of computer aided design allows for mapping their real construction patterns with great affinity. Modelling of worm meshes with the use of CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methods enables tracking the design process from the very beginning, i.e. from the concept or specific assumptions, until the final stage only by using appropriate software, thereby lowering the costs and eliminating common errors. Owing to this, just before the manufacturing process of the first meshing elements begins, one can conduct geometric analysis and correct or modify working profiles of the teeth in order to improve the operation properties of future gear. Visualizing such a geometric modelling process can also serve didactic purposes when used in education of future engineers, technologists and operators of this type of gears.

30. Cichowicz R., Olejniczak R.: Design underpressure combustion systems. Przegląd Techniczny. Nr 3-4 2013. s. 26-30.

Abstract: The combustion system for heating is designed not only for discharged gases produced in the boiler chamber outside the room taking account of existing laws, but also in order to provide sufficient air needed for combustion itself. Each exhaust gas system is made up of the flue (a vertical section of flue - chimney) and smoke conduit (the horizontal segment connecting the boiler plant with a chimney). Today there are two types of the exhaust gas systems: subatmospheric pressure one (a flue gas from the boiler is removed by the chimney as a result of the pressure difference between the boiler and the surroundings), and overpressure one (subatmospheric pressure is present in the vertical section, in the boiler and flue, however, there is a hypertension).


2012 rok


29. Cichowicz R., Banat J.: Concentration of carbon dioxide measured in selected university classrooms. INSTAL. Teoria i praktyka w instalacjach. 2012. 10(333). s. 38-42.

Abstract: Carbon dioxide can affect on human mood and working conditions in closed area. Knowledge about the level of air pollutants concentration in the room, should be a guideline to design a properly working ventilation system. Concentration of carbon dioxide was measured in building of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering faculty of Technical University of Lodz using portable gaschromatograph. This device has helped analyze selected areas of the building and identify high concentrations of carbon dioxide areas, which may adversely affect on people staying inside the building.

28. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: The Numerical Methods in Geometric Construction Mapping. Fundamentals of Machine Design. Key Engineering Materials, 490. 2012. s. 312-322.

Abstract: A dynamic development of numerical methods enables even so complicated geometrical modelling as modelling of hypoidal teeth, and in particular of worm teeth. Building on the basis of the finite element method of this type of geometrical mathematical model enables observing and analysing physical phenomena taking place in the teeth, e.g. changes of pressure distribution along the contact lines depending on the phase of meshing for particular cooperating pairs of teeth. Due to limited technical possibilities and mathematical apparatus such analyses were carried out only on the basis of the theory of plates with constant thickness. An unquestionable advantage of such numerical modelling is a short time needed to obtain final results, which enables profound analysis of the transmitted load. The knowledge of course of pressure distribution along the contact lines of particular pairs of intermeshing teeth in worm gears already in the design phase enables taking into consideration in adequate correction or even modification of the working surface of teeth, with the aim to equalise the distribution of pressure.


2011 rok


27. Cichowicz R.: Laboratorium ogrzewnictwa, odnawialnych źródeł energii i odzysku energii cieplnej z usuwanego powietrza. WOLF Zeitung Nr 2 11/2011. Magazyn Techniki Ogrzewczej, Wentylacyjnej i Klimatyzacyjnej. Warszawa 2011. s. 30.

Streszczenie: Katedra Techniki Ogrzewczej i Wentylacyjnej Wydziału Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej dzięki nawiązaniu współpracy z firmą WOLF Technika Grzewcza Sp. z o.o. posiada od 2009 roku dwa dodatkowe laboratoria naukowo-dydaktyczne. Oficjalna współpraca pomiędzy uczelnią, a Oddziałem niemieckiego producenta systemów grzewczych, słonecznych, wentylacyjnych i klimatyzacyjnych firmy WOLF GmbH spowodowała, że udało się wyremontować i w pełni wyposażyć laboratoria, w których zamontowano urządzenia przydatne zarówno w badaniach, jak i w nauczaniu zagadnień związanych z ogrzewnictwem, odnawialnymi źródłami energii oraz odzyskiem energii cieplnej z usuwanego powietrza.

26. Cichowicz R.: Normy dotyczące instalacji z pompami ciepła. WOLF Zeitung Nr 1 07/2011. Magazyn Techniki Ogrzewczej, Wentylacyjnej i Klimatyzacyjnej. Warszawa 2011. s. 10-14.

Streszczenie: Rozpoczynając omawianie norm dotyczących tego typu urządzeń należy na początku wyjaśnić, że powszechnie używane określenie „pompa ciepła” nie jest nazwą prawidłowa pod względem formalnym. Urządzenie takie powinno raczej nazywać się sprężarką lub pompą grzejną. Pomimo tego, jest to nazwa usankcjonowana zarówno normami przedmiotowymi, jak i logicznymi nie tylko w Polsce, ale i zagranicą (np. Wärmepumpe, Heat pump, czy też Pompe de chaleur) i dlatego w dalszej części artykułu przyjęte będzie to nazewnictwo. Poszukiwanie nowych sposobów ogrzewania, wykorzystujących źródła energii odnawialnej spowodowało ogromne zainteresowanie między innymi pompami ciepła. Stan techniki i technologii pozwala na wykorzystanie ciepła niskotemperaturowego, którego źródłem może być powietrze atmosferyczne, woda gruntowa, czy też sam grunt.

25. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: The Numerical Methods in Geometric Construction Mapping. XXV Sympozjon PKM. Fundamentals of Machine Design. Gdańsk - 16.09.2011, s. 312-322.

Abstract: A dynamic development of numerical methods enables even so complicated geometrical modelling as modelling of hypoidal teeth, and in particular of worm teeth. Building on the basis of the finite element method of this type of geometrical mathematical model enables observing and analysing physical phenomena taking place in the teeth, e.g. changes of pressure distribution along the contact lines depending on the phase of meshing for particular cooperating pairs of teeth. Due to limited technical possibilities and mathematical apparatus such analyses were carried out only on the basis of the theory of plates with constant thickness. An unquestionable advantage of such numerical modelling is a short time needed to obtain final results, which enables profound analysis of the transmitted load. The knowledge of course of pressure distribution along the contact lines of particular pairs of intermeshing teeth in worm gears already in the design phase enables taking into consideration in adequate correction or even modification of the working surface of teeth, with the aim to equalise the distribution of pressure.


2010 rok


24. Cichowicz R., Kępczyński W.: Numerical analysis of air parameters in isolation wards. XIV Sympozjum Wymiany Ciepła i Masy. Szczecin-Międzyzdroje 2010. s. 137-144.

Abstract: The applied numerical methods enabled building with great probability any geometrical model mapping actual rooms and processes occurring in them. The presented method makes it possible to analyse the behaviour of a stream of air in “N” type isolated wards in clinical buildings. Such wards are a system of rooms designed with the main purpose to immediately isolate a potentially sick person from the environment, and thus prevent spreading of infectious agents. Application of numerical methods in modelling of physical phenomena is associated with accuracy of the model itself and the interpretation of the obtained results. In case of making analyses in heating, ventilation and air conditioning the amount and character of disrupting factors can play an important role here. Unfortunately they cannot be predicted at the design stage. Therefore in order for the obtained results to reflect reality analyses should be made in the most universal way possible and  show the influence of particular factors on the final result. Using for the analysis a simple geometrical model, in which simplified shapes are assumed and certain architectural details of the room are passed over, enables highlighting the main phenomena taking place in the room and eliminating phenomena resulting from its individual character.


2009 rok


23. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: Limitations in application of empirical formulas to design of worm gears. Acta Mechanica et Automatica. Vol.3 No.1 2009. s. 95-97.

Abstract: Worm gears owe their popularity to their compact structure, large ratios at one degree, silent run, smooth driver transmission and relatively great durability. They have additional quality of simultaneous performing the role of brakes in reversible movement and transferring motion in one direction. All these advantages apply to worm gears working as reducers. Worm gears working as multiplicators are extremely rare. They are usually used for transfer of motion as elements of kinematics.

22. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: Ograniczenia w stosowaniu wzorów empirycznych w obliczeniach przekładni ślimakowych. 2009; XXIV Sympozjon Podstaw Konstrukcji Maszyn, Białystok-Białowieża, Sesja sekcyjna poz. 106.


2008 rok


21. Cichowicz R., Urbaniak A.: Mikroklimat wnętrz sakralnych. Przegląd Techniczny. Nr 26. 2008. s. 17-18.

Streszczenie: Klimat kościołów jest wynikiem wielu złożonych zależności, które kształtują charakter i tempo procesów niszczących zarówno strukturę budynku, jak i jego wyposażenie: obrazy, rzeźby, freski, polichromie. Ważna staje się wtedy kontrola temperatury i wilgotności względnej powietrza.


2007 rok


20. Cichowicz R., Heinz D., Marstalerz J.: Entwicklung einer AUTOCAD-Datenbank für Anwendungen der Entsorgungs- und Umwelttechnik. Forschungsbericht 2006/2007. Natur- und Technikwissenschaften. Hochschule Merseburg (FH). s. 120-124.

Abstract: Zur Optimierung der erforderlichen Planungs- und Projektierungsprozesse, welche im Wesentlichen computergestützt mittels AUTOCAD erfolgen, wurde ein Gemeinschaftsprojekt zwischen der MUEG mbH und der Arbeitsgruppe Entsorgungstechnik der Hochschule Merseburg (FH) auf der Basis eines DAAD Förderstipendiums realisiert. Ein wesentliches Ziel bestand darin, die modularen Einheiten mobiler Aufbereitungsanlagen – wie z. B. Komponenten zur Materialförderung, Mischung oder Zerkleinerung – zu projektieren und eine Datenbank, welche diese Einzelmodule als Systemkomponenten enthält, zu erstellen. Durch den Zugriff auf eine derartige Datenbank kann die Entwicklung von Anlagenkonzepten für die Altlastensanierung automatisiert werden und wesentlich schneller und effizienter erfolgen. In Weiterführung der  Projektarbeiten ist die Erweiterung der erstellten Datenbank auf Anwendungen in 3D-Darstellung geplant.

19. Jerominko A., Cichowicz R., Sobkiewicz A., Jerominko T.: Ogrzewanie podłogowe – projektowanie z uwzględnieniem aspektów zdrowotnych. Przegląd Budowlany. Nr 11 2007. s. 47-49.

Streszczenie: Współcześnie projektowane systemy grzewcze z wykorzystaniem ogrzewania podłogowego powinny uwzględniać uwarunkowania zdrowotne użytkowników. Podstawą świadomego kształtowania warunków komfortu termicznego jest wiedza z zakresu interakcji organizmu ludzkiego z środowiskiem termicznym wynikającym z zastosowania w pomieszczeniu ogrzewania podłogowego. Prawidłowo zaprojektowana i wykonana instalacja takiego ogrzewania powinna zapewniać komfort termiczny ale także funkcjonalny i estetyczny.

18. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: Application of finite element method in worm wheels modelling. XVI Konferencja nt „Metody i środki projektowania wspomaganego komputerowo”. Nałęczów 2007. Streszczenie referatu s.77.

Abstract: Nowadays dynamic development of numerical methods enables such a complex geometrical modelling as modelling of a hypoidal mesh, in particular a worm mesh. Building of a geometrical model with the use of numerical methods, which with great similarity project a real construction system, is no longer a problem it used to be ten years ago. The method of proceeding presented in the paper enables making any models of contours of teeth in the worm wheel in the way that it takes place in reality (with the method of envelope milling).

17. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: Forming of geometrical bodies reflecting real elements of construction with the use of FEM the example of worm teeth. XXIII Sympozjon Podstaw Konstrukcji Maszyn. Tom II. Rzeszów-Przemyśl 2007. s. 383-388.

Abstract: Worm gears are characterised by complicated geometry of meshing. Despite this fact, building with the use of numerical methods of a geometrical model reflecting real construction no longer creates a problem which had to be faced even ten years ago. Modelling of worm teeth or of the whole worm meshing with the use of final element method can become very helpful not only in science but predominantly in the whole gear design. Visualisation of the phenomena taking place in the meshing during the work of the gear brings about the possibility of profound analysis of the designed construction, not mentioning didactic benefits, helpful in teaching future designers, technologists and exploiters of this type of gears.


2006 rok


16. Cichowicz R., Jerominko T., Sobkiewicz A.: Ciepło spod podłogi (2). Przegląd Techniczny. Nr 7-8 2006. s. 45-46.

Streszczenie: W nowo powstających budynkach zastanawiamy się nad wyborem sposobu ogrzewania. Mimo, że przywiązanie projektantów i inwestorów do tradycyjnych instalacji grzewczych z grzejnikami jest duże, to wypiera je ogrzewanie podłogowe, które ma bardzo szeroki zakres stosowania. Można je stosować w budynkach mieszkalnych, budynkach użyteczności publicznej, szkołach, halach sportowych, kościołach, ośrodkach wypoczynkowych, a także do ogrzewania wolnych przestrzeni w celu usunięcia śniegu i lodu np.: wjazdów garażowych, schodów na wolnym powietrzu, placów i zadaszeń parkingowych, pól kołowania samolotów, pasów startowych, lądowisk, mostów, placów sportowych itp.. W Europie Zachodniej powyżej 50% nowych domów jednorodzinnych jest wyposażona w podłogę grzejną.

15. Jerominko T., Cichowicz R., Sobkiewicz A., Jerominko A.: Ogrzewanie podłogowe – wybrane zagadnienia projektowe. Przegląd Budowlany. Nr 6/2006. s. 22-26.

Streszczenie: Niskie koszty eksploatacji oraz prawidłowe i bezawaryjne działanie to podstawowe wymagania, które powinien spełnić każdy system grzewczy montowany w budynku, także ogrzewanie podłogowe. Aby było to możliwe każdy projektant i wykonawca musi poznać konstrukcję płyty grzejnej oraz jej możliwość współpracy z instalacją ogrzewania tradycyjnego. Nie bez znaczenia jest także wcześniejsze określenie przez inwestora, czy też architekta wykończenia wierzchniej warstwy podłogi.

14. Cichowicz R., Jerominko T., Sobkiewicz A.: Ciepło spod podłogi (1). Przegląd Techniczny. Nr 6 2006. s. 14.

Streszczenie: W nowo powstających budynkach zastanawiamy się nad wyborem sposobu ogrzewania. Mimo, że przywiązanie projektantów i inwestorów do tradycyjnych instalacji grzewczych z grzejnikami jest duże, to wypiera je ogrzewanie podłogowe, które ma bardzo szeroki zakres stosowania. Można je stosować w budynkach mieszkalnych, budynkach użyteczności publicznej, szkołach, halach sportowych, kościołach, ośrodkach wypoczynkowych, a także do ogrzewania wolnych przestrzeni w celu usunięcia śniegu i lodu np.: wjazdów garażowych, schodów na wolnym powietrzu, placów i zadaszeń parkingowych, pól kołowania samolotów, pasów startowych, lądowisk, mostów, placów sportowych itp.. W Europie Zachodniej powyżej 50% nowych domów jednorodzinnych jest wyposażona w podłogę grzejną.

13. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: Change of pressure along the contact lines in worm teeth. Proceedings of the International ScientificConference Mechanics 2006. Rzeszów 2006.s. 81-184.

Abstract: A dynamic development of numerical methods enables even so complicated geometrical modelling as modelling of hypoidal teeth, and in particular of worm teeth. Building on the basis of the finite element method of this type of geometrical mathematical model enables observing and analysing physical phenomena taking place in the teeth, e.g. changes of pressure distribution along the contact lines depending on the phase of meshing  for particular cooperating pairs of teeth. Due to limited technical possibilities and mathematical apparatus such analyses were carried out only on the basis of the theory of plates with constant thickness. An unquestionable advantage of such numerical modelling is a short time needed to obtain final results, which enables profound analysis of the transmitted load. The knowledge of course of pressure distribution along the contact lines of particular pairs of intermeshing teeth in worm gears already in the design phase enables taking into consideration n adequate correction or even modification of the working surface of teeth, with the aim to equalise the distribution of pressure.

12. Cichowicz R.: Systems and installations for renewable energy usage and  standards  for Poland. Pierwsza Międzynarodowa Konferencja Energii Słonecznej i Budownictwa Ekologicznego „Energia Odnawialna. Innowacyjne idee i technologie dla budownictwa”. Solina 2006. s. 85-91.

Abstract: The search for new heating methods using renewable energy resources has resulted in great interest in such devices as solar collectors and heat pumps. Modern technology enables application of energy coming from solar radiation and of a low exergy heating, which can be obtained from atmospheric air, subsoil water or soil itself. Pertinent standards, systematising and solving problems occurring within this area were developed in 2000÷2005, and are currently in force in Poland.  The aim of the paper is to facilitate orientation in the standards concerning solar collectors and heat pumps.  The paper has a form of a “guidebook” assisting in finding standards concerning interesting issues and problems.


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


2005 rok


11. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: Ślady współpracy w zazębieniu ślimakowym. XVIII Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna „Przekładnie Zębate”. Węgierska Górka 2005. Materiały na CD.

Streszczenie: Jednym z przyszłościowych kierunków badań przekładni ślimakowych są analizy dotyczące uzyskiwania wcześniej założonych śladów współpracy pary ślimak – koło ślimakowe. Już obecnie w dużej mierze pozwala na to rozwój metod numerycznych, dzięki którym można dokonywać matematycznego modelowania tak zawiłych kształtów geometrycznych, jakimi są zazębienia ślimakowe. Niewątpliwą zaletą takiego modelowania numerycznego jest krótki czas potrzebny do uzyskania wyników końcowych oraz możliwość ich graficznego zobrazowania. Jest to podyktowane głównie możliwością poznania rozkładów obciążeń wzdłuż linii styków współpracujących par zębów przekładni ślimakowych. Można dzięki temu już w fazie projektowania uwzględniać elastyczne odkształcenia zazębienia pary ślimak – koło ślimakowe będącego pod obciążeniem. Prowadzenie takich analiz może mieć znaczący wpływ na postęp w rozwoju dziedziny techniki jakimi są reduktory ślimakowe.

10. Cichowicz R.: Obowiązujące normy w Polsce dotyczące instalacji z pompami ciepła. Ekologia, Energie Odnawialne, Ciepłownictwo. Nr 7/8 2005. s. 94-96.

Streszczenie: Poszukiwanie nowych rozwiązań sposobów ogrzewania, wykorzystujących źródła energii odnawialnej spowodowało ogromne zainteresowanie pompami ciepła. Obecny stan techniki i technologii pozwala na wykorzystanie ciepła niskotemperaturowego, którego źródłem może być powietrze atmosferyczne, woda gruntowa, czy sam grunt. To zainteresowanie pompami ciepła spowodowało, że nastąpił szybki rozwój tej dziedziny techniki. Aktualnie obowiązujące normy w Polsce opracowane w latach 2000÷2004, usystematyzowały i rozwiązały dotychczas występujące problemy. Artykuł ten powstał aby ułatwić poruszanie się w obowiązujących w Polsce normach dotyczących pomp ciepła. Zastosowana forma ma charakter przewodnika po poszczególnych normach i ma na celu doprowadzić do tego, aby czytelnik mógł w prostszy sposób znaleźć interesujące go zagadnienia i problemy.


2004 rok


9. Sabiniak H. G., Cichowicz R.: Wpływ sposobu modelowania w metodach numerycznych zazębienia ślimakowego na dokładność rozkładu naprężeń. Konferencja Naukowo Techniczna „Symulacja 2004”. Zamek w Rydzynie 2004. Materiały na CD.

Streszczenie: Rozwój metod graficznych w metodach numerycznych umożliwia modelowanie tak skomplikowanych geometrycznie układów mechanicznych, jakimi są zazębienia hipoidalne, a w szczególności zazębienia ślimakowe. Dotychczas ze względu na moce obliczeniowe komputerów nie istniała możliwość odwzorowań geometrycznych tak skomplikowanych układów. Istnieje cała grupa komercyjnych programów komputerowych wykorzystujących do rozwiązań matematycznych metodę elementów skończonych, które umożliwiają analizę quasi dynamicznych zjawisk zachodzących podczas pracy przekładni zębatych. Z doświadczeń nabytych w modelowaniu geometrycznym i analitycznym zazębienia ślimakowego wynika, że wbrew potocznej opinii, aby uzyskać lepsze jakościowo wyniki wcale nie trzeba stosować gęstszego podziału na elementy skończone analizowanego rzeczywistego zazębienia. Istotą jest, aby model był możliwie najbardziej zbliżony do rzeczywistej konstrukcji. Bardzo często uzyskuje się to, przeprowadzając niejako graficznie cały proces technologiczny obróbki elementów zazębienia, tak jakby to przebiegało zgodnie z obróbką na rzeczywistych obrabiarkach.

8. Cichowicz R.: Standards concerning heat pump systems binding in Poland. X Międzynarodowe Sympozjum “Wymiana ciepła i odnawialne źródła energii – HTRSE-2004”. Międzyzdroje 2004. s. 335-339.

Abstract: Searching for new solutions in using renewable energy in heating resulted in great interest in heat pumps. Current state of technique and technology enables using low-temperature heat, which can be obtained from atmospheric air, underground water or ground itself. This interest in heating pumps has caused fast development of this area of technique. The standards currently binding in Poland were established in years 2000÷2003. They systematise and solve all problems that appeared in the past. The article is meant to facilitate finding way through Polish heat pumps standards. It has the form of a guidebook leading the reader through particular standards. Its aim is to make it easier for the readers to find the issues and problems they are interested in.

7. Cichowicz R.: Mixing and sucking phenomena in side flaws. II Konferencja Naukowa „Problemy jakościowe, energetyczne i eksploatacyjne w maszynach cieplnych”. Bydgoszcz-Duszniki 2004. s. 29-36.

Abstract: The mixing and sucking phenomena taking place in turbines and associated with side flows outside the blade set cause losses but can also have positive effects. Calculations made with the use of theoretical models and comparison of the results obtained in this way with the measurement results were used for reliability verification of the simulation method itself. The analysis proves that application of additional sealing mass in flux flows can improve working conditions and efficiency, especially when the conditions are variable. The example could be such mass flux values as gap stream and internal gland leakage, smaller then in the arrangement with no additional seal, whereas the values for the leakage through relief holes increase in this case.

6. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz R.: Load transmitted by particular pairs of teeth in worm teeth. Proceedings of the International ScientificConference Mechanics 2004. Rzeszów 2004. ScientificBulletinsof Rzeszów UniversityofTechnology No 209. Mechanics 62. s. 341-344.

Abstract: Current development of numerical methods enables mathematical modelling of such complex geometrical shapes as worm teeth. The models obtained in this way are tools for carrying out the analysis of strain and deflection of cooperating teeth. They also enable very accurate mapping of a real constructional arrangement, and thus making the analysis of load on particular pairs of teeth in various phases of cooperation. With the use of such models it is also possible to determine stresses, especially the ones most interesting, appearing in teeth roots. An undoubted quality of numerical modelling is a short time needed to obtain final results and the ability to represent them in graphical form. Some programmes built on the basis of the finite element method enable the analysis of quasi-dynamic phenomena taking place during the gear work in its teeth.


2003 rok


5. Sabiniak H.G., Cichowicz. R.: Mathematical modeling of worm gearing. XXI Sympozjon Podstaw Konstrukcji Maszyn. Tom II. WN-T. Ustroń 2003. s. 203-208.

Abstract: Numerical methods development, and first of all calculating instruments development for example computers, allows more perfect mathematical modeling of worm gearing. Models structures are based on two methods: finite differences and finite elements. Both of then allow make distortions and bends analysis, however only when we find such model that refers with big probability to real construction system. The advantages of both methods are short time needed for getting final results and their graphic presentation possibility. Adequate coordinating system application in mathematical model of worm gearing lets carry out the analysis of loadings and distortions distribution. These two methods can be use in present calculating methods verification.


2002 rok


4. Cichowicz R.: Tendenciles in development of heat pumps. IX Międzynarodowe Sympozjum “Wymiana ciepła i odnawialne źródła energii – HTRSE-2002”. Międzyzdroje 2002. s. 513-520.

Abstract: An intensive development of new technologies has caused the interest of the heat pumps, thanks to which it’s possible to gain the warmth out of the ground, the water or the air. In this article some of existing heat pumps are compared with a new solution. An application of mineral zeolites is one of the new solutions used in heat pumps. In the crystalline nets of this mineral, belonging to spatial silicates, there are free spaces, which make possible receiving and giving back of liquid or of gases without deterioration of their own structures. In heat pumps zeolites acts as an adsorbing material, whereas water provides a cooling effect. Equipment of this type is currently under investigation but has already raised a wide interest in industrial areas.

3. Cichowicz R.: Side flows in turbines – theory and experiments. Konferencja Naukowa „Problemy jakościowe, energetyczne i eksploatacyjne w maszynach cieplnych”. Bydgoszcz-Pieczyska 2002. s. 147-155.

Abstract: The experimental results have been received out of two-stage, two-shaft model turbine TM1-3. They have served testing a computer programme for phenomena of mixing and suction in a stage of the turbine with a low rotor reactivity. All the simulated calculations have been led with assumption of the same definitions (Parsons’ figure, inner efficiency, thermodynamic rotor share, index of isentropic entalpy increment) as in experimental calculations. The results of experimental measurments have been verified and the reliability of simulation method has been checked.


2001 rok


2. Cichowicz R.: The position to test gas boilers in the light of norms which are in force in Poland. II Ogólnopolska Konferencja Studenckich Kół Naukowych i Młodych Pracowników Nauki. Białystok 2001. s. 227-234.

Abstract: The teaching position to test gas boilers is proped on the hanging boilers Eurostar ZWE 24-2KP 23 S5892 which are produced by „JUNKERS”. The water hanging boiler is supplyed with bottled gas from cylinder. It is designed to apply in closed low temperature installation of central heating. The maximum temperature of supplying is 87°C and the maximum working pressure is 3 bars. The position enables to cheracterize such parameters as: thermal power of boiler, thermal balance, efficiency of boiler, productivity boiler, composition of fumes, efficiency exchanger, hydraulic resistances on the exchanger and also test efficiency different type of radiator. The position allows to present recommendations which the Polish Norms put on designers and mounters.


1999 rok


1. Cichowicz R.: Modeling the Phenomena of Mixing and Suction in a Stage of the Chamber Turbine with a Low Rotor Reactivity. The XII International Student Symposium. Mechanics, Microtechnology and Microcompoters. Łódź-Zakopane 1999. s. 43-50.

Abstract: A model of the mixing and suction phenomena occurring in a stage of the chamber turbine, i.e. impulse turbine, characterised by a low reactivity of the rotor and its verification in the light of experimental results are presented in the paper. The simulation employing this model is aimed at better identification of the phenomena taking place in side flows and determination of their effects and losses in the turbine operation. The paper consists of two parts. In the first one, the existing calculation models developed at the Institute of Turbomachinery, Technical University of Łódź, are discussed. The second part is devoted to changes in these models and codes suggested by the author.


 

Copyright © Wydział Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska

Ten serwis używa plików cookies. Niektóre z plików cookie są niezbędne do prawidłowego działania tego serwisu i już mogły zostać zapisane w folderze przeglądarki. Mogą Państwo je zablokować lub usunąć, jednak część witryny może przestać działać prawidłowo. Aby dowiedzieć się więcej przeczytaj Politykę plików cookies.

Akceptuję pliki cookies.